Macroeconomics depicts the large-scale operational procedure of a business or enterprise. Moreover, both production and cost are two indispensable parts of it. The production plays a vital role in the survival of a business amid a competitive market. On the other hand, cost determines the volume of production. At large, any business aims to achieve optimum production efficiency by reducing production cost.
However, for that, one needs to know some fundamental concepts like a definition of production, total product formula and likewise.
What is Production?
Production is a process of converting resources into products or services.
Below is its formula.
Y= F (L.K)
Here, Y= Production, L= Labour and K= Capital.
It refers to the total amount of output that a firm produces within a given period, utilising given inputs.
Total Product Formula is
Where AP= product/ labour unit; L= Labour
It is output per unit of inputs of variable factors.
Average Product (AP)= Total Product (TP)/ Labour (L).
It denotes the addition of variable factor to total product.
Thus, Marginal product= Changed output/ changed input.
In other ways, marginal product leads to an increase of total product with the help of additional worker or input.
In order to derive the relation, first students need to remember the total product formula. Moreover, the law of variable proportions explains the relationship between these two.
Marginal Product = ∑ Total Product
This law explains
TP increases in an increasing rate when MP increases. This pattern provides a Total Product Curve with a shape of convex. It then continues till MP reaches the maximum point of TP.
Where MP declines and stays positive, TP increases at a decreasing rate. This pattern provides a Total Product curve with a shape of concave after reaching a point of inflexion. It continues till TP curve reaches its maximum.
When MP is negative and declining, TP declines.
In case MP is zero, TP reaches its maximum.
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Image text: Relationship between total product curve and the marginal product curve.
Just like the relationship between marginal product and total product, the connection between this two is mentioned below.
Marginal product remains above an average product when AP rises.
Similarly, MP remains below AP, in case AP declines.
Average product and marginal product become equal at the maximum AP.
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Image Text: Graphs that explain the relationship between marginal product and average product.
This refers to a period when a particular business can make alternations in variable factors to influence production. However, here the fixed factors remain the same.
In the long run, an enterprise can make any changes in all factors to attain the desired production.
Now that you get an overall idea of what is a production and different usages of total product formula let’s proceed towards the fundamental concept of Costs.
It explains the relationship between the quantity produced and cost.
C= F (Qx)
Here, C= Production –Cost and Qx= Quantity of x goods produced.
It refers to the cost incurred to purchase various factor inputs like land and employ labours. This also includes the expenses of non-factor inputs like fuel, raw material, etc.
It is a total of fixed and variable costs and can be expressed as -
Where TFC= Total Fixed Cost
TVC= Total Variable Cost
It covers the cost of inputs that are self-owned used in production.
It accounts for standard business cost and also directly influences the profitability of a business, for instance, lease payments, wages, etc.
These are some of the most crucial factors of this chapter that students need to learn to perform well in the examination. Understanding these concepts may seem difficult at the beginning, but with proper guidance, it will become easier to comprehend.
Thus, if you want to know more about how to derive total product formula or any other concepts of production and costs, visit Vedantu’s website or download the app. They have some useful and informative study materials that you can consult to clear your basics.