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Water Management

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Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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What do we Understand by Water Management?

As we know that around three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water and around 96.5% of the global water resources come from the oceans and seas only. But the total volume of usable freshwater is around 2.5%  and stored groundwater is 30% only. Many research has shown that by 2026, India, along with many other countries will face a serious scarcity of water. Many regions in our country are already under ‘water stress’. (‘water stress’ happens when the available water falls below 1000 cubic metres per person per day). Let’s discuss some water conservation methods and management.


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What is Water Management?

The activity to control water resources in order to minimise the damage of property and life and also to maximise the efficient use is termed as water management or in simple words It can be termed as the process of planning, developing, and distributing for the optimum use of water resources under defined water policies and regulations.  With the rapid increase in the population of the world to over 6 billion people in the past few years, the use of water has also increased up to 500%. Water is an essential resource for life on earth not only for humans but for plants and animals also, and therefore it must be conserved. In fact, historically also, humans had learned some techniques to conserve the available water resources by building dams, Using Drip irrigation, doing Water harvesting, etc.


What is Water Conservation?

The most common misconception people believe is, water is replenishable and will be around us forever. The reality is, many of them are uneducated about the conservation of water resources. If we do not do something now to conserve water, Our future generations will not be able to have access to pure water. By doing proper planning, water can be supplied to many places regularly in town or city. But many times some amount of water is wasted through leakage of pipe and many other reasons. As we know that proper water management is necessary for water conservation methods. Thus, it is important for CWA authorities to take proper care of these problems while distributing water to our homes.


Most of the rainwater gets wasted even though it is one of the most precious natural resources. Farmers can play an important role in water conservation methods by using suitable techniques like rainwater harvesting and drip irrigation.

 

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Water Conservation and Management

The different methods of water conservation are:

  • Rainwater Harvesting:

It is the process of collection and storage of rainwater, rather than allowing it to run off. Rainwater is collected from the roof and is redirected to a tank, reservoir, cistern, or natural tanks, etc.


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  • Groundwater Harvesting: 

It is a method for saving water placed under the ground to control the groundwater flow in an aquifer and to raise the water table.

  • Drip Irrigation: 

It is a type of irrigation that saves water and fertiliser by dripping water slowly to the roots of various crops, either on the soil surface or directly to the root zone, through a network of pipes, tubing, and valves. This process saves more water compared to the traditional watering method.

  • Dams: 

Dams are simple hydraulic structures that act as a barrier between the source and destination of flowing water. Earlier times, these dams were very small and hand-made while in modern times, new engineering techniques and methods are used to construct large dams.


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  • Water-wise Habits: 

There are various good habits to conserve water for a long time. Some of them are Fixing leaky taps, Keeping the tap closed while brushing, taking a shower of 5 mins instead of long baths are a few examples of saving water.

The Indian practice in old times of cleaning water using brass vessels is well known and still continues. Even today water filter systems made from brass are very common. Older people in India use brass pots in the evening to store water and drink it during the daytime.

As time passes many technological devices are being developed to minimise water wastage, the impact will be greater if each and every individual starts contributing to water conservation by minimising or optimising the use of groundwater for daily work. Today, water management is becoming extremely important. Water management often involves modifying policies, such as drainage levels of groundwater, or allocating water for different purposes.


Ways to Water Management

Water is the most important natural resource. Many factors over the years have resulted in the degradation of natural resources including water bodies. Let us discuss the steps that can be taken for the conservation of water and what can be done on our behalf for the same. The activity of developing, planning, managing and distributing the optimum use of water resources is defined as water resource management.


Through precipitation and evaporation the water cycle maintains hydrological systems which support a variety of Aquatic ecosystems and forms lakes and rivers . Intermediate forms between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are wetlands that contain species of animals and plants that are highly moisture dependent Both security and economic development are placed at risk by poor water management and  water is increasingly becoming a Priority policy issue at the national level.


Rainwater harvesting:

The method of storage and collection of rainwater into reservoirs or natural tanks is known as rainwater harvesting.

Groundwater harvesting: 

A method to save water placed under the ground is groundwater harvesting.

Drip irrigation:

When the irrigation is done through dripping water slowly with the roots of various crops either directly onto the root out onto the soil surface in the method of drip irrigation.

Rainwater harvesting:

The rainwater is stored in big ponds or other things in the method of rainwater harvesting. This stored water can be reused in the future.

Water-saving habits: 

There are various wise habits to conserve water. Light taking a quick shower instead of long baths, lesser use of water during washing the clothes and fixing leaky taps.


Conclusion

Out of 70% of the Earth's surface water only 3% is freshwater. Of which  only 1%is usable water in lakes, subsoiler aquifers and rivers and 2% is in polar ice caps . Fractions of this can only be utilised at a global level, 70% of water is used for agriculture, about 25% for industry and only 6% for domestic use. This Article’s primary focus is on ways of Water Management. 

FAQs on Water Management

1. What is the importance of water resources management?

Water management helps in developing efficient irrigation practises for the betterment of agriculture in the country. This precious resource can be saved by proper utilisation of water and our homes too.Water management teaches us to use a limited amount of water whenever required. As for any wastage that occurs every citizen must be kept accountable. Water resources must be preserved for future generations.

2. What causes a serious threat to water bodies?

One of the major issues that are increasing at an alarming rate is that different water bodies like rivers, oceans, lakes, bays, etc are getting polluted due to the population explosion. The amount of Potable water that should be present on the planet is being lost.Water bodies like the groundwater are exploited to the fullest for the vested interests of some people. This will lead to a day when there won’t be any groundwater reservoirs left.

3. What are important steps for water management?

Conservation or water conservation helps to recharge groundwater by reducing consumption and using alternative sources of water. This method includes reuse of greywater and recycling based water, groundwater recharge and rainwater harvesting. The most successful water-saving fixtures are those which operate in the same manner as the fixtures they are replacing such as dual flush toilet systems, shower flow restrictors, low-flow showerheads etc.

4. What is a Greywater system?

Wastewater from non-toilet plumbing systems like showers and baths, washing machines, and hand basins is referred to as Greywater. Because of lower levels of contaminants greywater is easier to recycle and treat than black water. The size of the system by the standard and method treatment in a great water system.Pipes and supply points on the Greywater system must be clearly labelled in order to avoid confusion with the mains drinking water.