Iodoform is a yellow, crystalline solid belonging to the family of organic halogen compounds. It is also known as triiodomethane. What is a halogen, you may ask? Any of the six nonmetallic elements that comprise Group 17 of the periodic table are halogens. Thus, the halogen elements are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine and tennessine. Iodoform is an organoiodine compound with the formula – CHl3. It is a pale yellow, crystalline, volatile substance with a penetrating and distinctive odour. The use of iodoform is typical as a disinfectant.
History of Iodoform
George Simon Serullas first described the preparation of iodoform in the year 1822. The synthesis's display was due to iodine vapour's reactions with steam over red hot coals and potassium response with ethanolic iodine in water. You can prepare Iodoform by electrolysis of aqueous solutions containing acetone, inorganic iodides, and sodium carbonate. Several reagents convert iodoform to methylene iodide – a dense liquid, colourless when pure but usually discoloured by iodine traces – used as a heavy medium in gravity separation processes. The world first discovered iodoform's antiseptic properties in 1880, whence it became an essential medicinal tool. But, currently, it has been replaced by more effective substances.
Characteristics of Iodoform
Let us now understand some characteristics of iodoform.
The electrolysis of an aqueous solution containing acetone, inorganic iodides, and sodium carbonate leads to iodoform manufacture.
Iodoform is also known as tri-iodomethane. The alternate name is due to the presence of three iodine molecules in the compound.
Iodoform is used in dressing wounds and causes a burning sensation when applied to wounds.
The molecular weight of iodoform is 393.73 g/mol. Its melting point is 121 degrees C.
It is a highly pure substance and has a purity percentage of 98 per cent. This value is much higher than most other chemical substances.
The salient features of iodoform lie in its balanced composition, high purity and effectiveness.
Iodoform is a skin-friendly chemical as it does not cause any itching except when applied to open wounds.
Chemical Structure of Iodoform
The chemical structure refers to the arrangement of atoms and the chemical bond that holds the atoms together. Let us try to analyze the chemical structure of iodoform.
An iodoform molecule adopts tetrahedral molecular geometry with a C3V structure. There is a central atom at the centre with four substituents situated at the tetrahedron's corners in a tetrahedral molecular geometry. The iodoform molecule contains a total of four bonds. There are three non-H bonds. The 2D chemical structure image of iodoform is also known as the skeletal formula, which is the standard notation for organic molecules. The carbon atoms in the iodoform's chemical structure are located at the corners, and there is no representation of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms. You can consider that each carbon atom is associated with enough hydrogen atoms to provide the carbon atom with four bonds.
The 3D chemical structure of iodoform is based on the ball and stick model that displays both the atoms' three-dimensional portions and the bonds between them. Therefore, the spheres' radius is smaller than the rod lengths to provide a lucid view of the atoms and bonds within the structure model of iodoform.
Uses of Iodoform
There are numerous uses of iodoform, and we have compiled a list for you.
On a small scale, iodoform's use is that of a disinfectant. During the 20th century, the use of iodoform as a medicine component for healing and dressing wounds and sores was widespread.
Sterilization of surgical instruments was done by using iodoform.
It is an active ingredient for making cat and dog powders and zinc and propanoic acid to prevent infection.
Iodoform also helps in removing ear hair for dogs and cats.
The angel’s bonnet mushroom contains natural iodoform and displays its characteristic odour.
Owing to specific side effects, there has been an avoidance of using iodoform as an antiseptic, and advanced alternatives are now available.
The Iodoform Reaction
So far, we have grasped the concept of iodoform, its structure and its properties. But, now the question is what an iodoform reaction is? Let us try to get the answers.
An iodoform reaction is a chemical reaction wherein methyl ketone is oxidized to a carboxylate by reaction with aqueous hydroxide and iodide. The iodoform reaction identifies a CH2CH2 (OH) group in alcohols. When you add iodine and sodium hydroxide to a compound that contains either a methyl ketone or secondary alcohol with a methyl group in the alpha position, there is the formation of a pale yellow precipitate of iodoform. You can use it to identify a CH3CH=0 group. Specific compounds that give positive iodoform tests are – Acetaldehyde, Methyl Ketones, Ethanol, etc.
In chemistry, a reagent is a substance added to a system to get a chemical reaction or added to test if a reaction has occurred. There exist two iodoform reagents to check the iodoform reaction.
1. Iodine and Sodium Hydroxide Solution
The iodine solution is added to a small amount of alcohol, accompanied by just enough sodium hydroxide solution to remove the colour of the iodine. The appearance of a very pale yellow residual of iodoform indicates a positive result. You can also recognize the correct deposition by its colour and ‘medical’ smell.
2. Potassium Iodide and Sodium Chlorate (I) Solutions
There is an addition of potassium iodide solution to a small amount of alcohol, followed by sodium chlorate (I). If there is no precipitation, it may be necessary to warm the mixture gently. The positive result is a pale yellow precipitate.
Learning about iodoform is an integral part of chemistry. It is a substance with numerous everyday usages. Hence, the knowledge of iodoform, the reaction of iodoform, etc., has immense academic and practical value.