Elements of the First Transition Series

Introduction to Transition Metal

Transition metal, any of different substance components with valence electrons — i.e., electrons that can take part in the arrangement of synthetic bonds — in two shells rather than just one. While the term transition has no specific synthetic importance, it is an excellent name to recognize the similitude of the nuclear constructions and the properties of the components so assigned. They involve the centre segments of the significant stretches of the periodic table of components between the gatherings on the left-hand side and the gatherings on the right. In particular, they structure Groups 3 (IIIb) through 12 (IIb). 

Albeit the transition metals have many general substance similitudes, everyone has its very own definite science. The nearest connections are typical among the three components in every vertical gathering in the occasional table. However, inside each gathering, the component of the central arrangement ordinarily varies more from the other two than they vary from one another. The more significant part of the principal arrangement components is more recognizable and significant than the heavier individuals from their vertical gathering.

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Transition Metal Elements of the First Transition Series

Components from Sc (21) to Zn (30) are known as the elements of the first transition series (for example, 3d transition series). In the molecules of the first transition series, the last electron goes in 3d sub-sell. 

Oxides, halides, sulfides, carbides are fundamental paired mixtures of the first transition series. 


When the transition metal elements of the first transition series component are heated with oxygen at high-temperature metal oxides is framed, significant oxides of the first transition series are as per the following. 

Acidic Oxides: V2O5, CrO3, MnO3

Fundamental Oxides: Sc2O3, TiO, Ti2O3, VO, V2O3, MnO, CEO, FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, CoO, NiO, Cu2O. 

Amphoteric Oxides: TiO2, VO2, Cr2O3, CrO2, Mn3O4, Mn2O3, MnO2, CuO, ZnO. 

Properties of Oxides 

1. Acidic, Basic, or Amphoteric Nature: As the oxidation, No. of metal expands, its acidic nature of oxides additionally increments. 

Oxides of Vanadium: VO V2O, VO2 V2O5 

Oxidation No. of vanadium: +2 +3 +4 +5 

Nature of oxides: Basic Amphoteric Acidic 

2. Solvency: Amphoteric and essential oxides are solvent in acids which don't go about as oxidants. Acidic oxides structure oxyacids in water and oxy salts in bases to get broken up. 

3. Diminishing Nature of Oxides: Electron benefactor substances go about as reductants. Substances (iotas, particles, and atoms) that give their electrons effectively have a higher decreasing character. 


Elements of first change arrangement (3d arrangement) respond with incandescent light at high temperature to frame halides. The request for reactivity of incandescent light with the metals is as given below. 

F2 >Cl2> Br,> I2 

For the most part, fluorides are shaped in higher oxidation states. The development of halides requires high enactment energy, so this response happens at high temperatures. 

Properties of Halides 

1. Change metal halides are not so unstable but rather more helpless to hydrolysis. Metal halides in higher oxidation states tend to go through hydrolysis. 

TiCl4 + 2H2O → TiO2 + 4HCl 

2. In lower oxidation states, more steady oxides are framed. 

E.g.: ZnCl2, VCl2, and so on 

3. Fluorides are ionic. Chlorides, Bromides, and iodides have both ionic and covalent character. 

Fluoride > Chloride > Bromide > Iodide



Sulfides are gotten on warming metal with sulfur. Metal sulfides are likewise delivered on a watery arrangement of metal salts with Na2S or H2S. 

Properties of Sulfides 

1. First, change metal sulfides are dim shaded or dark. 

CuS – Black 

NiS – Black 

CoS – Black 

2. Sulfides are insoluble in water. 

3. They get oxidized to metal sulfates on oxidation. 

4. A few sulfides, CoS, NiS, and FeS, act as an amalgam or exhibit the semi-metallic character. 

5. FeS2, CoS2 contain discrete S2 units with S-S holding. 


Carbides are delivered on warming progress metals or metal oxides with carbon at a high temperature around 2000-2200°C. Carbides shaped by first transition series components are of two kinds. 

(a) Salt-like Carbides: These carbides are otherwise called electrovalent carbides or ionic carbides. Metals like Sc, Cu, Zn, and so forth structure this kind of carbides. 

(b) Interstitial Carbides: These carbides are otherwise called metallic carbides. Metals like Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co structure such sort of carbides. These sorts of carbides are acquired on warming carbon and metal. 

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Writing the Electron Configuration of a First Transition Series Atom

While writing the electron configuration of a first transition series atom, you just have to write the electronic arrangements of the transition metals such as; ns and (n-1)d electrons that have appeared to save space. The 14 electrons in the particles from Hf to Hg have not been written in. The electron setup of Mo (molybdenum) is like that of Cr, and both appear in green. Those metals appeared in blue, except for Pd, palladium, have just a single ns electron. Pd has none. Cu, Ag, Au, and Pd have ten electrons in the (n-1)d orbitals. These metals are generally extremely delicate, genuinely inert, uncommon, and except for Cu used in adornments. 

The transition metals, when in doubt, have comparative properties. The justification for this is that the degree of the orbitals from the core relies upon the main quantum numbers. Accordingly, the orbitals of the ns electrons expand farther than those of the (n-1) d electrons in similar periods and hence are more accessible for holding and responses. As different iotas and particles approach the metal molecules, the ns electrons are the ones that are first influenced.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What are Transition Metals?

Ans. For the most part, Transition metals are hard and thick, and less responsive than any of the soluble base metals. A portion of the principle shared properties of change metals can be distinguished as the underneath: 

  • They structure hued compounds 

  • They are acceptable transmitters of warmth and power. 

  • They can be twisted into shape without any problem. 

  • They are less receptive than salt metals. 

  • They have high liquefying focuses. 

  • They are generally complex and intense with high densities. 

  • There are exceptional cases for this, and not all progress metals will have these properties, however.

Q2. What are Transition Metals Used for?

Ans. Transition metals have a wide assortment of employments, with a portion of the principal ones recorded underneath: 

  • Iron is frequently made into steel, more grounded, and more effectively moulded than iron all alone. It is generally used to develop materials, devices, vehicles and as an impetus in alkali production. 

  • Titanium is frequently used in warrior airplanes, fake hips, and lines in thermal energy plants. 

  • Copper, since it is a decent transmitter of power, copper is frequently used in power links. It is effectively twisted and doesn't respond with water, so it is frequently used to make water pipes. 

  • Nickel is, for the most part, used in stainless steel.