The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes History Chapter 9 - PDF Download
The National Movement of India marks a significant event in the history of India. This moment played a fundamental role in helping India attain Independence. The National movement initially commenced in the heat of 1947. The entire movement took place for over a myriad of years for it to achieve optimal success. A wide range of reasons contributed to the establishment of the National Movement. In this chapter, students will learn everything they need to know about the National movement, and it’s making. Now refer to the Class 8 History Chapter 11 Notes PDF to prepare for your exams.
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Access Class 8 Social Science Chapter 9 - The Making of The National Movement 1870’s-1947 Notes
The following article bring to us the revision notes on making of the National Movement during the period 1870 to 1947. The idea of National Movement originated after different political organisations came into effect after the period of 1850’s. Most of such organizations were made between the years 1870 to 1880. There were also various reasons behind the Indian National Movement and it had quite important effects on the country’s further development.
Reasons Behind Indian National Movement
The reasons behind the growth Indian National Movement the country are -
In the period between 1850 and 1880, many political organizations were made. These organizations had numerous well-educated people who knew the pain of being controlled. Some of these renowned political organizations of that period were Indian National Congress, Poona Sarvajanik sabha, Madras Mahajan Sabha, Bombay Presidency Association and many others.
The Arms Act was made in the year 1878.
The infamous Vernacular Press Act was made by Lord Lytton and it was passed in the year 1878 to suppress the Indian Press who criticised the government & its various actions.
Efforts of British Raj to introduce another infamous act was called as Ilbert Bill also led to the development of the national movement in the country. The British Govt. was compelled to withdraw the bill amidst mass protest.
Formation of the Indian National Congress brought about a very systematic way to move against the British Raj. Some of the founding members of Indian National Congress were Dadabhai Naoroji, W.C. Bannerjee, R.C. Dutt etc.
The Primary Demands of INC were as follows-
According to historians, Congress was considered to be ‘moderate’ in its approach and methods. Their demands included the following:
The primary demand of INC (Indian National Congress) was to make the Legislative Councils more representative to indians and give them more power.
Indians should also be designated to higher ranks in government services. In earlier periods of time, civil service examinations were only held in London and not in india. INC claimed that the said examination should be held in India as well.
The administration should be Indianised.
The judiciary must also be separated from the executive.
Freedom of speech & repeal of the Arms Act were the other demands of Congress.
In the area of economy, curtailment of revenue, Reduction of military expenditure and more funds to irrigation were basic demands.
Resolutions were also passed in the annual meeting of INC regarding the Salt Tax, Handling of Indian labourers abroad and the poor condition of the forest dwellers.
The criticism of Britishers was carried out through speeches of the political leaders of INC and the representatives of INC had reached in every nuke and corner of the country to drum up public opinion.
Rising of a New Notion – “Freedom is our Birthright’
The method of political bargaining of the INC was criticised by some leaders after the year 1890. Major opponents of INC were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, B.C. Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai and others. More radical objectives & methods were supported by them.
The British Govt. also played a divide and rule policy to neutralize the Bengali leaders by partitioning Bengal into two parts. It was opposed by the leaders of INC. The movement against the partition of Bengal is called as the Swadeshi Movement. The Swadeshi Movement is of immense historical significance.
The Swadeshi Movement also brought the idea of boycotting the British products by promoting the ideas of self-help, swadeshi enterprise, national education etc. An idea of revolutionary violence was then realized to give an end to British rule in India.
Congress was later split in the year 1907 by opposing the idea of a boycott. INC was separated into two parts namely Moderates and Extremists.
INC was reunited then in 1915 session and signed the famous Lucknow Pact with the Muslim League in the year 1916.
Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement 1870s - 1947
Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes
The Emergence of Nationalism
India was initially known as the people of India regardless of their caste, class, creed, language, colour, and even gender. All the systems and resources were, moreover, meant for these people. However, the British made no mistake in exercising control over every other resource of India. It took control of the lives of Indians even. The consciousness was then clarified by different political associations established after 1850. Some of the most crucial political associations during this era were the Indian association, Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, the Madras Mahajan Sabha, the Indian national congress, and even the Bombay Presidency Association.
In this chapter, students will learn meticulously about these associations and the very emergence of the national association. All of these associations played a crucial role in the functioning of distinguishing parts of India. Moreover, every association had a specific objective to accomplish. Two topics that you’ll learn under this subtopic include-
A Nation in the Making
Freedom is our Birthright
The Growth of Mass Nationalism
After 1919, the unfortunate struggle against Britain rule simultaneously formed into a mass movement. This movement consisted of tribals, students, peasants, and women, in abundance. In some circumstances, these movements also comprise factory workers. After World War I took place, India’s political and economic situation was drastically disrupted. This thus led to an extreme rise in the Indian Government’s defence expenditure. Moreover, even individual income taxes and business profit taxes were increased. Students will learn more about everything that went down after World War I in India.
The Advent of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi was known as a mass leader. He reached India in 1915 from South Africa. He then established non-violent protests against different racial restrictions.
The Rowlatt Satyagraha
In 1919, Mahatma Gandhi called for a satyagraha movement against the Rowlatt act. This act prohibited the fundamental rights of Indians like freedom of expression and even strengthened the police powers.
Along with these topics, students will learn thoroughly about topics mentioned below-
Khilafat agitation and the Non-cooperation Movement
The People’s Mahatma
The happenings of 1922-1929
The March to Dandi
Around 1930, Mahatma Gandhi marched along with his followers for breaking the salt law. This law states that the state consisted of a monopoly on the manufacturing and selling of salt. The salt March thus linked the common desire of freedom to a particular grievance shared by all Indians. This further united Indians abundantly. It further brought together the poor and the rich. Gandhiji, along with his followers, marched for over 240 miles, starting from Sabarmati to Dandi, a coastal town in India. Here, they broke the law by bringing together natural salt found in the seashore. They further boiled this salt to produce salt.
Peasants, women, and even tribes participated in this event. In this section of the chapter, students will learn more about the Dandi movement and necessary acts and dates throughout this March. Students are advised to go through the Class 8 History Chapter 11 notes to learn thoroughly about this topic.
Quit India and Later
The last section of this chapter deals with ‘Quit India’. Mahatma Gandhi started a new and final phase of the National Movement, also known as the Quit India movement. He was dedicated to making the British leave India. He motivated the people of India by saying phrases like ‘do or die’. He continued this movement with non-violence and even attracted the youth and peasants that gave up their jobs and studies to fight for the independence of India. Students will learn more about the last movement that took place before India attained independence.
In 1940, India’s Muslim league claimed independent states for Muslims altogether. The league thus began in the late 1930s itself. The league further viewed Muslims as a whole different nation from that of Hindus. The provincial elections that took place in 1937 convinced the Muslims that they were nothing more than a minority. This thus emerged a sort of threat among the Muslims. Students will learn more about what happened in India after it attained independence from British rule.
FAQs on The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes CBSE History Chapter 9 [Free PDF Download]
1. Write about different forms that the Non-cooperation movement took in varied parts of India. How did the people of India understand Mahatma Gandhi?
The people of various places in India showed different reactions.
The Patidar peasants in Kheda, Gujarat, started nonviolent campaigns against several high land demands of the British.
The Muslim traders and peasants of Sind (now in Pakistan), were encouraged and excited about the Khilafat call.
The Akali agitation (of the Sikhs) in Punjab aimed to mitigate corrupt Mahants. These mahants were assured by the British itself.
In Bengal, the Khilafat non-cooperation alliance offered extensive communal unity and power to the national movement.
In Andhra Pradesh, the tribals and peasants staged a ‘forest satyagraha’ number while even sending off their cattle into the forests, without having to pay for the grazing fee.
Most people thought of Mahatma Gandhi as a sort of messiah. They thought of him as a leader that could help in overcoming poverty and even misery. Gandhiji worked towards developing class unity rather than class conflict.
2. Why did Mahatma Gandhi break the salt law?
The salt March was interlinked with the very desire of freedom to the specific injustice done to every Indian in regards to the right to salt. This movement brought together the poor and the rich. Gandhiji started a March that led to breaking the salt law.