With the help of the Class 8 History Chapter 5 notes, students can learn more about certain policies and all the people who were behind them. There is also a summary of the sepoys and the peasants, the fight between nawabs and the company. Students will be able to master their knowledge of the chapter with slight assistance from these concept pages. These notes for Chapter 5 are specifically important for students as they can revise these notes and learn more about the chapter very quickly right before their exams.
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The People and Their Policies
As the 18th century rolled on by, there were some changes in the policies made. We are going to discuss these policies right now.
The Loss of Power of The Nawabs
There was a time during the mid 18th century when the rajas and Nawabs lost their power and authority over the people. Hence, in order to ensure that their interests were protected, most of the ruling families decided to negotiate some terms with East India Company. For example, Rani Lakshmibai, the Queen of Jhansi, wanted the recognition of her adopted son as the heir after her husband’s death, but the Company rejected that plea.
The Sepoys and The Peasants
Some zamindars and peasants residing in the countryside didn’t want to support these high tax-paying methods and other ways of revenue generation by the Company. This was because most people had to lose their land due to the failure to pay their loans back to some moneylenders. Some of the Indian Sepoys who were employed by the East India Company were not happy about the allowances, pay, and the service conditions that they were subjected to. When these sepoys were supposed to be shipped off to Burma for the war, they refused to go via the sea route but agreed over the land route.
Responses to Certain Reforms
The reformation of Indian society happened when the British started to pass some laws, including the stopping of the practice of Sati tradition. Also, the encouragement of widow remarriage was commissioned by the British. Apart from that, the promotion of English Education happened. It was right after 1830 when the Christian missionaries got the permission to function on their own if they had their domain along with their property and land.
The Beginning of Mutiny and The Rebellion
In March 1857, the East India Company faced one of the biggest rebellions when people rose against one common enemy. The rebellion began in Meerut and was led by several members of different communities. This rebellion was definitely considered to be one of the largest and the most effective armed resistance against colonialism.
The Spread of The Rebellion
The rebellion spread from Delhi when there was no uprising from the British. There were many regiments that were a part of the mutiny from Kanpur, Delhi, and Lucknow. Armed forces were gathered on behalf of Nana Saheb, who named himself as the next Peshwa after the death of his predecessor and father, Peshwa Baji Rao. The Queen of Jhansi fought alongside Tantiya Tope, who was also Nana Saheb’s General. There were a number of different battles where the British had to accept defeat.
However, the East India Company soon brought some reinforcements and support from England. New laws were passed in order to capture and convict all of the rebels. In the year 1857 September, Delhi was under capture and the emperor at the time, Bahadur Shah Zafar was imprisoned for life.
Lucknow came under the capture of the British in March 1858 with the defeat and death of Rani Lakshmibai in June 1858. There were many other martyrs such as Rani Avantibai who chose to face death at the time of being surrounded by British forces. After the rebels were defeated, the British planned on providing rewards for winning the loyalty of the people. They vowed to spare the people who would surrender and promised to provide safety to those who had not killed any white people during the rebellion.
The Aftermath of The Rebellion
By the time 1859 came around, the country was again under the control of the British. Also, some necessary changes were made during the rule. Students can find more details in the Class 8 History chapter 5 notes.
In the following year, the control and power were transferred from the Company to the Crown for proper management of affairs in India. A secretary was appointed from the British Cabinet members for handling the matters related to the Indian government.
The ruling chiefs were provided with the assurance that their territory won't have to face the threat of being annexed. Also, the chiefs were allowed to safely pass the kingdoms and property to their heirs.
There was an increase in the proportion of European soldiers and a subsequent decrease in the number of Indian soldiers that were present in the army.
Property and lands of the Muslims were heavily confiscated and the people were often treated with hostility and suspicion.
Overall respect was paid to the cultural and religious beliefs of the Indians.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What Demand was made by the Queen of Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai that the British Refused?
Answer: The demand was made by the Queen of Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai that the British refused was to accept the adopted son of hers as the successor of the King’s throne after her husband’s death.
2. How was the Last Few Years of Life for Bahadur Shah Zafar?
Answer: The last few years for Bahadur Shah Zafar were very pathetic as he was imprisoned by the British and sent to Rangoon jail where he died.
3. From Where did the Revolt of 1857 Begin?
Answer: The Revolt of 1857 first began from Meerut.