India After Independence Class 8 Notes History Chapter 10 - PDF Download
Chapter 10 of class 8 gives students detailed insights into the development of India after it attained independence from British rule. In 1947, India achieved freedom but faced several challenges. For instance, the partition of the country is one of the significant struggles that India faced. A new state known as Pakistan was established altogether. The state consisted of varied portions of eastern and western India. After India attained independence, the formation of a constitution took place. New states were further established, thereby highlighting and organizing strategies for the development of India. In this chapter, students will learn about everything that India as a country underwent after it attained independence. Refer to India after independence notes to know more about what you should learn in this chapter.
Class 8 Social Science - History Chapter 10 India After Independence Notes
A New and Divided Nation
India gained independence in August, in the year 1947. Due to the unfortunate partition of the country, over 8 million refugees migrated to the country from Pakistan. A nawab or maharaja ruled every princely state. Each of these nawabs further had to be influenced to go to a new nation. The population of India, in the year 1946, was overabundant. The country was, moreover, categorized based on high castes- low castes, the majority of the Hindu community, and other Indians that practised distinguishing faiths.
The Indian citizens were vast and came with distinctive cultures. They spoke distinguishing languages and even wore varied clothes based on their culture. In this section of the class 8 history chapter 10 notes, the students will learn more about the cultures of Indians, the food they ate, the professions they practised, and so on.
A Constitution is Written
Between December and November of 1949, there were over three hundred Indians that conducted various meetings to discuss the political aspects of the country. The Constituent Assembly meetings took place in New Delhi. All the discussions further played an influential role in the decision-making of Indian’s political future.
One of the prime features of the constitution includes the adoption of the universal adult franchise. This subtopic of the chapter deals with everything that was included in the making of the constitution. It gives students details into the age groups that were allowed to vote for state and national elections. It also suggests different features or the constitution and how these features came into play for shaping the future of the country.
How Were States to be Formed?
In the early 1920s, Indian National Congress gave an oath to the Indians that after independence, every significant linguistic community would comprise its province. India was categorized on the very basis of religion. The Prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, along with the Deputy Prime Minister, Vallabhbhai Patel, however, did not support the creation of these linguistic states.
Individuals with different mother tongues demanded their states. The most effective protests of the Telugu-speaking districts came into the limelight and protested on several occasions. This section of the chapter tells students about how the formation of different states took place in India.
Planning for Development
As the topic name suggests, this section of the chapter ‘India after independence’ deals with the structuring and strategy planning for the development of the country. In 1950, the government appointed a planning commission for conceptualizing and implementing relevant policies for the economic betterment of the country.
A mixed economy model came into play wherein the stage and private sectors would be responsible for boosting production and even offering jobs. The planning commission also worked towards structuring and defining different industries and their initiation. This topic of the chapter gives students highlights into the second five-year plan that was introduced in 1956. It further states how this plan essentially focused on boosting and advancing different industries like steel, and even the construction of huge dams.
The Nation, Sixty Years On
At the end of this chapter, you’ll learn about the importance of 15 August 2007. In the year 2007, India had been free from British rule for over 60 years. Thus, this date marks the celebration of India after 60 whole years of independence. India remains democratic and united. Several foreign observers believed that India wasn’t capable of surviving as a country. They also thought that the country would break down into a wide range of parts where every region formed a nation for itself.
However, India carries pride in remaining a democratic and secular country. Despite different constitutional securities, the Dalits are victims of discrimination and violence in distinguishing parts of India. Furthermore, India has encountered a wide range of clashes amid varied religious communities despite practising secular ideals. Throughout these years of independence, the beef between the poor and the rich has also developed. Many parts of India have economically developed while many haven’t. This section of the chapter concludes the aftermath of India after independence. It talks about the constitution and how India has developed majorly despite having still facing prime concerns.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Why was English still continued after India attained its independence from Britain?
Several congress members suggested that the Indian Language shouldn’t be in use after the British rulers leave India. They suggested that Hindi should be the alternative for this language. However, Individuals who were unfamiliar with Hindi came with a different viewpoint. Several individuals also felt like the Hindi language was being imposed on them. Thus, the congress members finally decided to come to a conclusion wherein English would remain as the official language of India.
2. ‘In politics, we have equality, and in social and economic life, we will have inequality’. What did Dr. BR Ambedkar mean by this?
B.R Ambedkar suggested that a political democracy should be guided by social and economic democracy. By the words mentioned above, he suggested that he wanted to eradicate the very form of inequality between economic and social spheres of life. He wanted to get rid of any means of discrimination that the lower caste and poor people faced. He suggested that India would be a true democracy only if the democracy truly touches every sphere of Indians’ lives.