Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Notes CBSE History Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 20th Apr 2024
Total views: 374.7k
Views today: 4.74k

From Trade to Territory Class 8 Notes History Chapter 2 - PDF Download

History is a critical subject of the CBSE syllabus. The students should study history to know the place, the country, the world very well. As students are the future citizens of a country, they will form the society and run the country in future. To conduct the system of the country, they have to know the history of it. By knowing the history of a country, the students can form a better country to live. That is why CBSE included Indian history in the syllabus of class 8 Social Science. Class 8 history chapter 2 notes provide trading and Territory concepts to the students. They get to know about the starting of the British kingdom from NCERT class 8 history chapter 2 notes.

Download CBSE Class 8 History Revision Notes 2024-25 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 8 History revision notes for All chapters:

Access Class 8 Social Science (History) Chapter 2 – From Trade to Territory (The Company Establishes Power)

Death of Aurangzeb

  • Aurangzeb became the last of the powerful Mughal leaders.

  • Following his death in 1707, numerous Mughal governors (subadars) and great Zamindars began to assert their authority and establish regional kingdoms.

  • As powerful regional kingdoms appeared in various regions of India, Delhi could no longer function as an efficient centre.

East India Company Comes East

  • In 1600, the East India Company acquired a charter from the British sovereign, Queen Elizabeth I, giving it the exclusive right to trade with the East.

  • This meant that no other commercial group in England was able to compete with the East India Company.

  • This would enable the company to buy cheap products or raw materials and sell them at higher prices.

  • However, the Royal Charter could not prevent other European powers from gaining access to Eastern markets.

  • The refined qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had an extensive market in Europe.

  • Competition among European firms inevitably pushed up the prices at which these products could be bought, which reduced the profits that could be made.

East India Company begins trade in Bengal.

  • The first British plant was built on the shores of the Hugli River in 1651.

  • The plant had a warehouse where the goods for export were stored, and it had offices where the Corporation's employees sat.

  • In 1696 it started constructing a fort around the colony. Two years later it bribed Mughal officials into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. 

  • It also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman granting the Company the right to trade duty free.

  • When the company officials refused to pay taxes even when they traded personally, Bengal incurred heavy financial losses.

How trade led to battles

  • After the death of Aurangzeb, the nawabs of Bengal affirmed their power and autonomy, as other regional powers did at that time.

  • They were irritated by the company’s aggressive stance.

  • They prevented the fortification of the Company’s Warehouses.

  • They also needed to set up more settlements and for that, they needed to acquire the rights to many villages.

  • This constant conflict between the Nawabs and the company led to the Battle of Plassey.

The Battle of Plassey

  • After the death of Aliwardi Khan, Sirajuddaulah became the nawab of Bengal.

  • The Company was worried about his power and was keenly interested in a puppeteer who willingly gave commercial concessions and other privileges.

  • A furious Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop interfering in the political affairs of his domination, stop the fortifications and pay the revenues. 

  • After the failed negotiations, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory of Kassimbazar, captured the leaders of the company, locked the warehouse, disarmed all the British, and blockaded English ships.

  • Upon hearing the news of the fall of Calcutta, the company officials at Madras sent troops under the command of Robert Clive, strengthened by naval fleets.

  • Extended negotiations with Nawab ensued. Finally, in 1757, Robert Clive directed the army of the company against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.

  • One of the principal reasons for the defeat of Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of the commanders of Sirajuddaulah, never fought the battle.

The Puppet Nawab

  • The Company was not yet prepared to assume responsibility for the administration.Its prime objective was the expansion of trade.

  • When Mir Jafar protested, the Company removed him from office and placed Mir Qasim in his place.

  • When Mir Qasim complained, he was defeated in a battle at Buxar (1764), driven out of Bengal, and Mir Jafar was re-established.

  • The Nawab had to pay Rs 500,000 each month but the Company wanted more money to fund its wars, and meet the demands of trade and other expenditures.

The East India Company Gets Diwani of Bengal

Eventually, in 1765, the Mughal emperor designated the Company as the Diwan of the Bengal provinces. Diwani has enabled the Company to utilize the vast revenue resources of Bengal. This resulted in the resolution of a major problem facing the Corporation in the past. By the early 1700s, its trade with India had increased.

The Residents of the Company

The company initially did not have the interest to assume political power in India. It was only when they saw that without acquiring political power, their trade would not flourish that they decided to directly administer the state of affairs.After the company got a good hold of Bengal’s administration, they appointed Residents. The Residents were the agents of the company.Through these residents, the company interfered with the internal matters of the Indian regions. The Residents decide who would be the next successor and who would get the administrative posts.Through the subsidiary alliance, the company prevented the Indian rulers from keeping independent armies. The company’s army would protect them. But the local rulers had to pay for this protection.When this kind of dark diplomacy failed, the company used direct military intervention.

Wars with the Company

  • Mysore grew up under the leadership of powerful leaders such as Haidar Ali (reigned from 1761 to 1782) and his famous son Tipu Sultan (reigned from 1782 to 1799). Mysore controlled the profitable business on the Malabar coast, where the company bought pepper and cardamom.

  • In 1785, Tipu Sultan stopped the exportation of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of his kingdom and prevented local merchants from trading with the Company.

  • Four wars were fought with Mysore (1767-69, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799). Only in the last  the Battle of Seringapatam did the Company ultimately win a victory. Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital Seringapatam, Mysore was placed under the former ruling dynasty of the Wodeyars and a subsidiary alliance was imposed on the state.

  • Beginning at the end of the 18th century, the Company also sought to curb and eventually destroy the power of Maratha. With their defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Marathas' dream of governing Delhi was annihilated.

  • A series of wars ensued against the Marathas. In the first war, which ended in 1782 with the Treaty of Salbai, no clear winner was found. The Second War AngloMaratha (1803-05) was waged on various fronts, which allowed the British to reach Orissa and the northern territories of the Yamuna River, including Agra and Delhi. Finally, the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817-19 brought down the power of Maratha. 

The Policy of Paramountcy

According to the foregoing, from the beginning of the 19th century, the Society pursued an aggressive policy of territorial expansion.During the reign of Lord Hastings (GovernorGeneral from 1813 to 1823), a new policy of "supremacy" was launched. The Company claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme, so that its power was superior to that of the Indian states.  Sind was resumed in 1843. The next one up the list was Punjab. But Maharaja Ranjit Singh's presence hampered the Society. Following his death in 1839, two protracted wars took place with the Sikh kingdom. In the end, in 1849, Punjab was annexed.

The Doctrine of Lapse

The last wave of annexations occurred under Lord Dalhousie, who was governor general from 1848 until 1856. He conceived a policy which came to be known under the name of the doctrine of lapse.The doctrine stated that if an Indian leader died without a male heir, his kingdom would "fall into decay", that is, become part of the territory of the Company. One kingdom after the other was annexed merely by the application of this doctrine: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and Jhansi (1854).

Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Trade To Territory Notes

Beginning of Trade In India

Many trading companies from different countries come to India for their trading business. They looked for new lands and bought cheap goods for their businesses. Different trading companies came from Portugal, France, England, some other western countries. This trading business started at the kingdom of Mughal governors and zamindars after Aurangzeb's death in 1707.

East India Company Comes India

Among all the trading companies, the East India Company of England was the most powerful in India. In 1600, this company came to India with the charter from Queen Elizabeth (ruler of England) to have the sole right of trading in the East. According to the character, they roamed around the oceans and bought cheaper goods and then they carried them to Europe and sold at a higher price. The things they bought were pepper, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, silk, cotton, etc. In 1651, East India Company started their businesses in Bengal. In 1696, The Company built a port around the factories in Bengal. They started demanding more concessions in business and manipulated the business of Bengal.

Trading Transforms Into Battle

East India company started demanding more concessions from the nawabs of Bengal. For the convenience of the Bengal business market, the nawabs refused to grant these concessions. The company was trying to capture the Bengal market along with the kingdom. For these reasons, a conflict started between the East India Company and the nawab of Bengal. This conflict led the company and the nawab towards the battle of Plassey.

(Image to be added soon)

The Battle of Plassey

In 1756, Siraj Ud Daulah became the nawab of Bengal. Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah got to know about the company's strategy and asked them to stop interfering in political issues. The company was not satisfied with the decision of nawab regarding the business and kingdom. The commander of Bengal helped the company and was against the nawab in the battle of Plassey. In 1757, Robert Clive sent the company's army against the nawab, and the Battle of Plassey began. The company won the battle against Siraj Ud Daulah, the nawab of Bengal. The company expanded the trade by becoming the Diwan of Bengal in 1965. 

East India Company Becomes The Ruler of India

After the Battle of Plassey, the company started forcing the actual nawabs of Bengal and made the business easy in Bengal. In 1764, the Mughal emperor appointed Robert Clive as the governor of Bengal to remove all the corruption in company administration. From 1757 to 1857, many changes occurred between the company and the kingdom of Bengal and other provinces. Gradually, the company started interfering in economic and political issues of other provinces also. The company fought many battles such as the Battle of Buxar, four battles against Mysore with the ruler of different provinces. Thus, the company captured Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Agra, Delhi, Mumbai and others one by one. Finally, East India Company won the battle of 1857 and became the ruler of 63 per cent territory and 78 per cent population of India. Thus, East India Company transformed into a colonial territorial power from a British trading company.

Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes

Trade to territory class 8 notes is crucial for the history syllabus. To score well in a history exam, the students should read the trade to territory class 8 notes sincerely. To have a good capture on this chapter, the students should follow class 8 history chapter 2 notes pdf, from trade to territory class 8 notes, from trade to territory class 8 ppt and from trade to territory class 8 pdf.


Vedantu's free PDF download of CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 2 notes on "From Trade to Territory" is a valuable educational resource. These notes offer a well-structured and comprehensive overview of India's colonial history, covering key events, individuals, and their impact on the subcontinent. Vedantu's user-friendly approach ensures that students can easily grasp complex historical concepts and enhance their knowledge. By providing these notes for free, Vedantu empowers students to excel in their studies without financial barriers. They facilitate effective exam preparation and foster a deeper understanding of India's transition from trade to British colonial rule. In essence, Vedantu's CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 2 notes are an essential tool for students aiming for academic success and historical insight.

FAQs on From Trade to Territory Class 8 Notes CBSE History Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

1. Why is it crucial to follow class 8 history chapter 2 notes?

Ans: Class 8 social science history chapter 2 is all about the East India Company's transform from a trading company to territorial power. The Central Board of Secondary Education included the starting of the British Kingdom in India and its history in the class 8 syllabus. The students will get to know about their country's history. Knowing history is essential for the students. Also, they will score well by reading their history chapters of the syllabus. The students have to read this chapter sincerely. To have explicit knowledge of this chapter, the students should read the CBSE class 8 history chapter 2 notes. Thus, they can attend the questions of this chapter efficiently.

2. Describe the trading to territory concept briefly.

Ans: Here, the trading to territory concept refers to the East India Company's journey from trade to territory. East India Company came here for trading business with the sole right. After some days, they started demanding high concessions from the nawab of Bengal. Also, they started interfering in political issues of Bengal. The company won the Battle of Plassey against the nawab demanding trade expansion. After that, the company came to power in Bengal province. Gradually, the company started capturing Bihar, Orissa, Mysore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Agra, Delhi and other provinces of India. In 1857, the company became the ruler of India, and the territory of Britain started in India.

3. What happened after Aurangzeb’s death in Chapter 2 of Class 8 History?

Ans: The Mughal empire nearly toppled after Aurangzeb’s death as he was the last in the line of powerful Mughal rulers. Aurangzeb was successful in establishing control over a significant portion of North India. After his demise, subadars and big zamindars of the empire started fighting to establish their superiority and divided the land. They created smaller regional kingdoms that were constantly at war with each other. Soon after, the British acquired control of the land.

4. What was the charter of the East India Company in Chapter 2 of Class 8 History?

Ans: Just before the British came to India, the East India Company acquired a charter from Queen Elizabeth I. This charter gave them the permission to be the only company that was allowed to trade with the East. Thus, this charter gave the East India company full autonomy. The company made use of this charter to exploit several underdeveloped nations in the name of trade. To know more about this topic, refer to CBSE Chapter 2 of Class 8 History Notes - From Trade to Territory. The notes and solutions are present on Vedantu's official website ( and mobile app for free of cost.

5. Where did the East India Company first begin trade in Chapter 2 of Class 8 History?

Ans: The East India Company set up its first quarters on the bank of the Hooghly river in what is present-day Kolkata. This was the company’s first operating base. Goods were stored in warehouses and officials were made to sit in their offices. Soon, trade started booming. The British were particularly shrewd at business. They built forts around their factories and managed to bribe Mughal officials into giving them zamindari rights over three villages.

6. What led to the Battle of Plassey which was mentioned in Chapter 2 of Class 8 History?

Ans: The Nawabs of Bengal managed to assert their power after the demise of Aurangzeb. They refused to let the Company officials manipulate them into giving them concessions. Restrictions were imposed, which left the East India Company quite unhappy as with the Mughal empire, they were used to having their free will imposed. Soon enough, tensions built up and this led to the famous Battle of Plassey between the Company and the Bengal Nawabs in 1757.

7. What was the Doctrine of Lapse in Chapter 2 of Class 8 History?

Ans: Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India in the mid 1800s, released a set of annexations to strengthen British rule in India. He formulated a cunning policy that came to be known as the Doctrine of Lapse. This doctrine stated that if an Indian ruler passed away without a son to succeed him, the territory would become a part of British rule. This helped the British take over many kingdoms unjustly. Some of these kingdoms were Udaipur, Nagpur, Jhansi, and Satara.