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Write short notes on gene mutation.

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Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Mutation is any changes occurring in hereditary materials are called as mutation. Mutation may be harmful, beneficial or neutral. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a highly stable molecule that replicates with amazing accuracy some errors of replication do occur.

Complete Answer:
Mutation is divided into two sections; they are gene mutation and chromosome mutation. A gene mutation is considered as alteration in the sequences of nucleotides in DNA. This change can affect a single nucleotide pair or larger gene segment of chromosome.

Types of gene mutation:
1. Point mutation - Silent mutation, missense mutation, nonsense mutation
2. Frameshift mutation - Insertion, deletion
3. Base substitution - Transition mutation, transversion mutation
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- Point mutation is the most common type of gene mutation, it is also known as pair substitution. Point mutation changes in a single nucleotide base pair.
- Frameshift mutation is one type of mutation that occurs when the addition or loss of DNA bases changes a gene reading frame. A reading frame consists of three bases, each code for one amino acid. Frameshift mutations shift the grouping of these bases and change the code for amino acid.
- Base substitution mutation is mutation in which one base pair is replaced by another. It can be classified into transition mutation, transversion mutation.

Note: Chromosome mutation is the change in the number of chromosomes (example: polyploidy, aneuploidy). Harmful of gene mutation leads to protein malfunction, lethal to life, sometimes stops the development of the fetus, causing genetic disorder. benefits of gene mutation lead to producing a new version of protein, essential for evolution, enhancing survival.