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Write name of the first transgenic crop in India.

Last updated date: 19th Jun 2024
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Hint: Transgenic crop (recombinant crop) is a genetically modified crop. In transgenic crops, the desired gene is inserted with the help of genetic engineering process. Transgenic crops are disease resistant, pest resistant, environmental change-resistant and etc.

Complete answer:
The world’s first genetically modified crop is the tobacco plant, which produced in 1982; this plant was antibiotic-resistant. But China became the first country which launched the first transgenic plant at commercial level in the year 1992, that virus-resistant tobacco plant.

The first transgenic crop developed in India was Bt brinjal, In this plant a desired gene was isolated from the Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria. This gene is an insect resistant gene that protects the crop from attack of insects. Further, this gene also inserted into the Cotton crop and became Bt cotton. Bt gene encodes poisons protein which able to kill insects but does not affect on Bacillus thuringiensis, because the pH of its cytoplasm is acidic and this protein is inactive in an acidic environment when crop ingested by insects this gene also enters into insects gut and become activated because the pH of insects gut is alkaline. When this protein activates, it binds to the wall of gut which broke down, allowing the Bt spores to invade the insect's body cavity.

Additional information:
Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology is an advanced technology of the present day. This technology is helping us in various fields like pharmaceuticals, agriculture, fermentation, medicine etc.

Synthesis of recombinant product
- Isolate the desired gene from the donor organism.
- Insert this desired gene into plasmid DNA with help of two enzymes, ligase and Restriction enzyme.
- Now, this fragment of DNA is inserted into the acceptor organism.
- This fragment of DNA utilized the machinery of the acceptor organism and started to synthesis desired protein inside it.
- This was the brief introduction of how to produce recombinant products.

Note: Bt Brinjal was developed by the Maharashtra Hybrid seed company. But nowadays Bt brinjal is banned in India and countries like the USA, because they lose the healthy nutrients and this gene is also dangerous for us.