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Last updated date: 25th Nov 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

Which substance is formed by carbonisation of dead vegetation?

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Hint: This substance can be identified with analysis of volatile matter, ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. Except for methane, this volatile matter does not exist by itself but it designates in such a way that the volatile compounds that are produced and driven off by heating the substance.

Complete answer:
Coal is a crude form of carbon. As a result of slow decomposition of vegetable matter under the influence of heat, pressure and limited supply of air, it leads to production of coal in nature. The successive stages of transformation are peat, lignite, bituminous, steam coal and anthracite. The anthracite which burns with non-smoky flame is superior quality. Bituminous burns with smoky flame and is hard stone, by burning substances rich in carbon content such as kerosene, petroleum turpentine oil, acetylene etc in a limited supply of air Lamp black or carbon black it is obtained.
Additional knowledge: other use of carbon is graphite which is used for making lead pencils, electrodes of electric furnaces, as a moderator in nuclear reactors, as a lubricant in machinery.
Charcoal: in removing offensive odour from air, in removing fused oil from crude spirit, in decolourising sugar syrup, in gas mask etc.
Carbon black: for making printing inks, black paints, Indian inks, boot polishes and ribbons of typewriters.
Therefore, the final compound formed is called coal.

Since the 1950s chemicals have been produced from coal. Coal gasification to produce syngas is the main route of these products. Coal can be used as a feedstock in the production of a wide range of chemical fertilizers and other chemical products.