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Which of the following is/are the green plastids?
A. Carotenoids
B. Xanthophyll
C. Chloroplasts
D. All the above

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Last updated date: 14th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: A membrane-bound organelle found in plant cells, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms are the plastid. They are known as Gloeomargarita-related endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The irreversible endosymbiosis case is likely to have happened with a cyanobiont.

Complete Answer:
- Plastids were found by Ernst Haeckel and named them, but The first to have a consistent description was A. F. W. Schimper.
- Plastids are the location where essential chemical compounds used by the cells of autotrophic eukaryotes are manufactured and preserved. They also include pigments used in photosynthesis and determine the colour of the cell by the types of pigments in a plastid.
- They have a similar evolutionary ancestor and possess, like the circular chromosome in prokaryotic cells, a circular double-stranded DNA molecule.
- Chlorophyll-containing plastids can carry out photosynthesis and are called chloroplasts. Plastids can also store materials such as starch and can synthesise fatty acids and terpenes, which can be used to make electricity and to synthesise other molecules as raw material.
- For eg, the epidermal cells synthesise the components of the plant cuticle and its epicuticular wax from palmitic acid that is synthesised in the chloroplasts of the mesophyll tissue.
- Both plastids are obtained from proplastids found in the plant's meristematic areas. Proplastids and young chloroplasts are often separated by binary fission, although this ability is also essential for more mature chloroplasts.

So the correct option is “C”.

Note: Plastids have the capacity to distinguish, or redifferentiate, from these and other forms, based on their morphology and function. In addition, apicoplasts are secondary endosymbiosis-derived non-photosynthetic plastids of Apicomplexa.