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Which of the following is not a vitamin deficiency disease?
(a) Addison’s Disease
(b) Goitre
(c) Keratomalacia
(d) Xerophthalmia

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Last updated date: 25th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: A vitamin deficiency disease is a disease that arises because of the long term lack of vitamins in the body.
The causes for a vitamin deficiency may be genetic or bad lifestyle choices.

Complete Answer:
Addison’s disease is a long term endocrine disorder that is differentiated by the improper production of cortisol and aldosterone by the outer layers of the adrenal cortex. Cortisol and aldosterone are steroid hormones and their inadequate production by the adrenal cortex causes adrenal insufficiency.
Keratomalacia is a disorder of the eyes. It results from a deficiency of vitamin A in the body. Vitamin A is critical in the maintenance of the specialized epithelia of the eye. These specialized epithelia are the cornea and conjunctiva. A deficiency in vitamin A results in atrophic changes on the mucosal surface of these specialized epithelia. The goblet cells are lost and the specialized epithelium is replaced with a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The cornea becomes opaque and the person becomes blind.
Xerophthalmia is a condition where the eyes are unable to produce any tears. Xerophthalmia is mainly caused by a deficiency of vitamin A. Xerophthalmia can be caused by other causes but the most common cause is a deficiency of vitamin A. Xerophthalmia is described as a pathological dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea. The conjunctiva becomes dry and wrinkled and can ultimately lead to blindness if left untreated.
Goitre is an inflammation of the neck caused by the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Goitre is usually associated with the improper functioning of the thyroid gland. Most of the cases of goitre in the world are caused by a deficiency of iodine in the body.

Therefore goitre is not a vitamin deficiency disease. Hence, the correct option is (b) Goitre.

Note:
Symptoms of Addison’s disease include:
1. Abdominal pain
2. Abnormal functioning of the gastrointestinal system.
3. Weakness
4. Weight loss
5. Darkening of skin in certain areas
6. A rapid onset of these symptoms is a serious condition.