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Which of the following electromagnetic waves has (a) minimum wavelength, and (b) minimum frequency? Write one use of each of these two waves.
Infrared waves, Microwaves, $\gamma$-rays and X-rays

Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
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Hint: Electromagnetic energy moves in waves and crosses a broad spectrum from huge radio waves to tiny gamma rays. The human eye can only identify only a tiny portion of this spectrum called visible light. Gamma rays are entirely composed of energy. Gamma rays have enormous energy and the shortest wavelength, and Microwaves have negligible energy and the highest wavelength, as seen in the spectrum.

Complete step-by-step solution:
The electromagnetic spectrum is the complete distribution of electromagnetic radiation according to wavelength or frequency. Although all electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light in a vacuum, they do so at a broad range of frequencies, wavelengths, and photon powers. The electromagnetic spectrum contains all electromagnetic radiation and comprises many subranges, commonly assigned to portions, such as visible light or ultraviolet radiation. The various portions bear different titles based on variations in behaviour in the emission, transmission, and absorption of the identical waves and their different valuable applications.
The full range of the electromagnetic spectrum is presented by radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultra-violet radiation, X-rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays, rising order of frequency, and lowering order of wavelength.
The minimum wavelength has the highest energy and vice versa; $\gamma$- Ray has the greatest energy, so it has a minimum wavelength, and Microwaves have the tiniest energy, so it has a maximum frequency.
Use of $\gamma$-rays: - treat cancer treatment, tracers in medicine.
Use of Microwaves: - radar, satellite, and spacecraft communication, microwave radio relay networks, cooking at home/office.
Note: When light moves through matter, it tends to cooperate with the molecules and atoms with resonance frequencies; they directly communicate with light waves having the precise frequencies. When collisions happen in an excited state, the atoms and molecules release light with a particular collection of specific frequencies. This moreover results in a line spectrum. Here, only light with detached wavelengths is produced. The spectrum is not continuous, but it comprises a set of emission lines.