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Which of the following diseases has been eradicated from India?
A. Polio
B. Leprosy
C. Measles
D. Smallpox

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint:Some diseases are very severe and fatal. They get communicated very fast so it becomes necessary to eradicate them as their presence of even the smallest pathogen can infect the whole population again or in the future times. The concept of vaccination and immunization play a vital role here.

Complete answer: Eradication means a complete reduction of something to zero. It is a permanent deletion of a disease. It takes a long time to eradicate a chronic disease.
Option A: Polio: It is a virus-caused disease that can transmit via contaminated food or person. The vaccine has been made to eradicate it. It has been eliminated to negligible presence but still, one or two cases can be expected.
Option B: Leprosy: It is a skin disease causing skin lesions and damage to the nervous system. It is a curable disease. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It is still active but is not dangerous now.
Option C: Measles: It is an infection present in children. It can be cured by vaccines. It affects the respiratory system of the child. It is still active in some areas but has nothing chronic in it now.
Option D: Smallpox: It is a contagious disease caused by Variola, a virus. It came into knowledge in 10,000 BC. By 1977, it was fully eradicated. The vaccination was developed against this disease to eradicate it. It spreads via cough, shared drinks, contact, blood products, etc. due to its attack on the human immune system, it was difficult to make a vaccine but after a long wait, scientists could prepare a vaccine that eradicates it forever.

So the answer is option D: Smallpox.

Note: Edward Jenner is the scientist who made the vaccine for smallpox. He brought the concept of immunization into the study. The black smallpox is meant to be the most fatal form of smallpox. The person was believed to have died in 6 days after having smallpox.