Courses
Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
More
Store Icon
Store
Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
Total views: 405k
Views today: 12.05k
Answer
VerifiedVerified
405k+ views
Hint: Most thermophiles are archaea. It is proposed that thermophilic eubacteria were among the earliest bacteria. The word thermophile has been derived from the Greek terms “thermos” meaning “warm or hot” and “philos” meaning “dear or beloved”.

Complete Step by Step Answer: A thermophile is an organism that thrives at relatively high temperatures, ranging from $41^\circ C - 122^\circ C$. At high temperatures, the enzymes in thermophiles act. Some of these enzymes, for example, the Taq polymerase used in PCR, are used in molecular biology. "Thermophile" is derived from the sense of heat in Greek: (thermotita), and love in Greek:(philia). In different forms, thermophiles can be categorized. These species are sorted according to their optimum growth temperatures by one classification:
Easy thermophiles: between $50$ and $64^\circ C$; $65^\circ C - 79^\circ C$ Severe Thermophiles; $80^\circ C$ and beyond, but not < $50^\circ C$ Hyperthermophiles.
Thermophiles are sorted as follows in a similar classification: - Optional thermophiles can thrive at high temperatures, but also at lower temperatures (below $50^\circ C$), whereas optional thermophiles (also called moderate thermophiles) can thrive at high temperatures. - For growth, mandatory thermophiles (also called extreme thermophiles) require such high temperatures. - Hyperthermophiles for which the optimum temperatures are above $80^\circ C$ are especially extreme thermophiles.

Additional Information: Hot springs such as those in Yellowstone National Park and deep-sea hydrothermal vents, as well as rotting plant matter such as peat bogs and compost, contain thermophiles in various geothermally heated regions of the Earth. Thermophiles will live at high temperatures, while other bacteria if exposed to the same temperatures, would be weakened and often killed.

Note: For growth, many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea require elemental sulfur. Some are anaerobes that, during cellular respiration, use sulfur instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor. Some are lithotrophs that oxidize sulfur as an energy source to generate sulfuric acid, causing the microorganism to adjust to a very low pH (i.e. an acidophile as well as a thermophile). These species are inhabitants of acidic, sulfur-rich ecosystems, such as hot springs, geysers, and fumaroles, commonly associated with volcanism. In these areas, especially in Yellowstone National Park, microorganisms are zoned in accordance with their optimum temperature. Often, because of the presence of photosynthetic pigments, these organisms are coloured.