Hint: It is a tool of assisted reproductive technology for treating infertility. In this technique, the eggs are removed from the ovaries of a woman, and placed in one of the Fallopian tubes, along with the sperm.
In gamete intrafallopian transfer(GIFT) ovum from the donor female is surgically removed and is then introduced into the fallopian tube of females. In vitro fertilization is a technique in which fertilization of male gamete and female gamete occurs outside the body under similar conditions as that in the body. It is followed by zygote or embryo transfer. In IUT or intrauterine transfer usually, the embryo with 8 blastomeres is transferred into the uterus. In ZIFT or Zygote intrafallopian transfer the zygote or early embryo is transferred to the fallopian tube.
Embryo transfer is a step in the process of assisted reproductive technology. Here the embryos are placed into a female uterus after fertilization.
This technique is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization or IVF. It may be used in humans and animals.
In IVF, mature eggs are collected from ovaries and they are allowed to fuse with the sperm in a lab. Then the fertilized egg or eggs are transferred to the uterus. One full cycle of IVF may take about three weeks.
So, the correct answer is option (c) 'GIFT'.
Note: In GIFT, sperm and eggs are put in the fallopian tube while in the case of ZIFT, the sperm and egg are first fertilized in a lab. Then the fertilized egg is placed into the fallopian tube for development.
Now the methods of IVF are used more frequently and hence the GIFT procedure is used less frequently as the pregnancy rates are high in case of IVF.
This technique was first done by Steptoe and Edward. Later It was pioneered by endocrinologist Ricardo Asch, allowing the fertilization to take place inside the woman's uterus.