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What is the total collection of genes, at any time in a unit of evolution called?
A. Gene bank
B. Gene library
C. Genome
D. Gene pool

Last updated date: 28th Feb 2024
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Hint: The Russian geneticist Alexander Sergeevich Serebrovsky first formulated the concept in the 1920s as “genofond”. It is the set of genes in a population.

Complete step by step answer: Gene pool is the sum of a population’s genetic material at a particular time. The term is used for a population of individuals of the same species that include all genes and combinations of genes (sum of the alleles) in the population. A population that has a large and diverse gene pool tends to have increased biological fitness and is able to adapt and survive throughout the changes caused by rapid environmental conditions or disease. Gene pool centres refer to areas on the earth where important crop plants and domestic animals originated. They have an extraordinary range of the wild counterparts of cultivated plant species and useful tropical plants. Gene pool centres also contain different subtropical and temperate region species.
i. Gene banks are a type of biorepository which preserves genetic material. For plants, it is stored in vitro or frozen. It is also preserved by stocking seeds. For animals, the sperms and eggs are frozen in zoological freezers.
ii. A genomic library is a collection of the total genomic DNA of a single organism. The DNA is stored in a population of identical vectors, each containing a different insert of DNA.
iii. A genome is the complete set of sequences of genetic information in an organism. It provides all the information about the organism. In living organisms, the genome is stored in long molecules of DNA called chromosomes.
Hence, the correct answer is option D.

Additional information: There are many factors that affect a gene pool such as population size, genetic drift, mutation, migration and non-random mating patterns.

Note: A gene pool has high genetic diversity and is able to withstand natural selection as well as environmental stressors. Inbreeding contributes to the creation of a small gene pool and makes populations or species more likely to go extinct when faced with some type of stress.