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The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, Europe shows ______________.
A. Rolling topography
B. Mountain topography
C. Karst topography
D. All of these

Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Hint: Topography is the study of the form of ground surfaces and their characteristics. The topography of a region could apply, or a description, to the surface shapes and features themselves.

Complete Answer:
The second-smallest continent is Europe. Often Europe is defined as a peninsula with peninsulas. Europe, from north to south, can be split into four main geographic regions: the Western Uplands, the Northern European Plains, the Southern Uplands, and the Alps. Rolling topography is any shape of the land that is not too high to be called a peak. Rolling topography is shaped like glaciers by erosion or some other force of nature. The eruption of volcanoes over time may also shape rolling topography. In the Proterozoic Era, the development of the heavily weathered mountain range started with mountain creation that continued through the Permian Period in the Paleozoic Era (between about 1 billion and 265 million years ago). During the Cenozoic period, Uplift was renovated about 65 million years ago, and the current landscape started to shape. The range now consists of gneiss and schist bedrock formed by sedimentary, volcanic, and igneous material re-crystallization. Over time, the region's geology has been a dissected landscape of rounded peaks and wide concave valleys characterized by a steep escarpment rising 1,800 feet over the adjacent portion to the east. The ranges consist of peaks that are medium, intermediate, and high. The range has 82 peaks in excess of 5,000 feet and 43 peaks in excess of 6,000 feet. Karst is a topography created by the dissolution of rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum that are soluble. Underground irrigation systems of sinkholes and caves define it.
So, the correct answer is Option D.

Note: Europe's plant and animal populations follow a general north-south direction, close to their physical areas. Found in Iceland and the northern reaches of Scandinavia and Russia, the tundra is a treeless area where tiny mosses, lichens, and ferns grow. Huge reindeer herds feed on these tiny trees.