Hint: Evolution is the natural phenomena that happen to every organism, according to the environmental nature, and the organism undergoes adaptation, which these adaptations are included in the genes and expressed in other generations, finally results in evolution.
So many theories are proposed regarding the organic evolution-
> Darwin’s theory:
- It was proposed by Charles Darwin and is also called as a theory of natural selection.
- The important aspects of the theory state that every life on this planet is connected to each other, from where diversification of life happens.
- Darwin gave a lot of examples for natural selection, like a goat to giraffe, where goats feed on plants, as the leaves on top were water by stretching neck, where this thing is accumulated and result in the origin of the giraffe
- In natural selection, both micro and macroevolution takes place, though it is widely accepted, still there controversial
> Synthetic theory:
- It is modern evolution theory
- In this theory, it’s mainly telling that genetic variation happens in the population is responsible for the evolution of new species
- This theory has concepts of both Darwin and Mendel concepts
- It differs from the Darwin theory by some important aspects such as genetic variations and gene drift, which is not mentioned in Darwin theory
- It also describes the inheritance and discrete units of genes.
- It states that speciation is due to the accumulation of genetic variations
= So this is considered as the most accepted theory for organic evolution.
> Mutation theory:
This theory simply states that evolution is a jerky process, where species happened and formed due to mutations. It is proposed by Hugo de Vries
> Phase theory:
It is the most primitive theory and it’s stated that biochemical reactions are responsible for the genesis of organisms in different phases
Hence, The correct answer is option (C).
Note: In any evolution process, usually there are five stages, which includes Mutation, genetic recombination, chromosomal abnormalities, reproductive isolation, and natural selection, as this all are explained in the synthetic theory it is said to be most accepted theory of evolution.