Hint:The process by which genetically different plants are crossed to produce a new variety of plant is known as hybridization. This process can be employed to produce offspring with various favorable characteristics, such as disease resistance and higher yield by the insertion of genes responsible for these traits.
Complete answer: The very first artificial interspecific plant hybrid was produced by Thomas Fairchild. The organism thus developed was known as the Dianthus caryophyllus barbatus or the Fairchild mule. It is a cross between a Sweet William and a Carnation Pink. Considering the other given options: Cotton Mather was a clergyman, who was known for his works on science and literature. He was also involved in the witchcraft trials conducted in Salem. He wrote about many subjects including botany and medicine. Joseph Koerauter was a German botanist. He is widely known for his works on seeds. He was a naturalist, but also worked on zoology and physics. He also worked on the development of backcrosses. And hypothesized that backcrosses increase the frequency of the nuclear genes. Thus from the above-given options, the most appropriate one was found to be option C, Thomas Fairchild for his discovery of the Fairchild mule, and the other mentioned scientists were associated with other works.
Note:There are various advantages to the process of interspecific hybridization. It helps in introducing the desirable traits in the population of the progeny produced. Also functions in eliminating any undesirable characters present in the parent species. An example of interspecific hybridization in animals is an animal known as Mule, which is a hybrid of horses and donkeys.