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The energy released per fission of a $_{92}{{U}^{235}}$nucleus is nearly(A) 200 eV(B) 20 eV(C) 200 MeV(D) 2000 eV

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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We know nuclear energy, also called atomic energy, energy that is released in significant amounts in processes that affect atomic nuclei, the dense cores of atoms. It is distinct from the energy of other atomic phenomena such as ordinary chemical reactions, which involve only the orbital electrons of atoms. Uranium is the fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission. Uranium is considered a non-renewable energy source, even though it is a common metal found in rocks worldwide. Nuclear power plants use a certain kind of uranium, referred to as U-235, for fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. Based on this concept we have to solve this question.

Complete step by step answer
We know that the fission process is represented by the equation, $92 \mathrm{U}^{235}+0 \mathrm{n}^{1} \rightarrow 56 \mathrm{Ba}^{144}+36 \mathrm{Kr}^{89}+30 \mathrm{n}^{1}$
We know that,
Masses of reactants $=234.39+1.01=235.4 \mathrm{amu}$
Masses of products $=143.28+88.89+3(1.01)=235.2 \mathrm{amu}$
Hence, to calculate the approximate amount of energy that is released from the fission of a $_{92}{{U}^{235}}$nucleus, we must first find the difference in mass after the reaction.
Since, we know that the mass difference indicates a release of energy.
With this in mind, we can easily calculate the approximate amount of mass converted into energy.
Energy released = mass difference $=235.4-235.2=0.2 \mathrm{amu}=0.2 \times 931 \sim 200 \mathrm{MeV}$.

Option (C) is the correct answer.

Note
We know that nuclear fission is a process in nuclear physics in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller nuclei as fission products, and usually some by-product particles. Hence, fission is a form of elemental transmutation. In nuclear fission, an unstable atom splits into two or more smaller pieces that are more stable, and releases energy in the process. The fission process also releases extra neutrons, which can then split additional atoms, resulting in a chain reaction that releases a lot of energy.
On the other hand, nuclear fusion is the process of making a single heavy nucleus (part of an atom) from two lighter nuclei. This process is called a nuclear reaction. It releases a large amount of energy. The nucleus made by fusion is heavier than either of the starting nuclei. Hydrogen atoms are fused together to make helium.