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The disease caused by Leishmania and transmitted by Phlebotomus is known as
A. African sleeping sickness
B. Amoebic dysentery
C. Kala-azar fever
D. Chagas disease

Last updated date: 13th Jul 2024
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Hint:The disorder is characterised by fever over more than two weeks with splenomegaly, anaemia, and gradual weight loss and darkening of the skin.

Complete Answer:
A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or injury to the host. The various types of pathogens and the seriousness of the diseases they cause are very broad. Examples of pathogens are bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is caused by parasites of Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Amoebic dysentery is caused byEntamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite. It is spread due to contaminated drinking water and food. Chagas disease, also called trypanosomiasis, is a life-threatening disease caused by parasitic protozoa trypanosoma cruzi. T. Cruzi parasites are predominantly spread through contact with faeces or urine of infected blood-sucking triatomine bugs.

Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infection caused by Leishmania, which is spread by sandflies (Phlebotomus species). Sandfly bites spread leishmaniasis to humans in most of the tropical and subtropical regions. Visceral disease, the most severe and lethal type of leishmaniasis, is classically known as kala-azar or the Indian word for "black fever" which refers to the distinctive darkening of the skin observed in patients with this illness. It is characterised by irregular episodes of fever, extreme weight loss, swelling of the spleen and liver, and anaemia.

Thus, the correct answer is C i.e., Kala-azar fever.

Note:There are three major types of leishmaniasis-visceral, cutaneous (most common) and mucocutaneous. The expression "kala-azar" originates from India, where it is the Hindi word for black fever. The disorder is also known as visceral leishmaniasis, Indian leishmaniasis, dumdum fever, black fever and black sickness.