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How‌ ‌can‌ ‌the‌ ‌terminal‌ ‌groups‌ ‌of‌ ‌amino‌ ‌acids‌ ‌be‌ ‌identified?‌

Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
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Hint: Amino acids are organic compounds with amino and carboxyl functional groups, as well as a side chain that is exclusive to each amino acid. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the four essential elements of amino acid, while other elements can be present in the side chains of certain amino acids.

Complete answer:
Amino acid sequences are unique to each protein. The primary structure of a protein is defined by the order in which its amino acids are identified. Peptides and proteins can now be sequenced automatically using instruments. The method relies on breaking down the peptide one amino acid at a time and recognizing each one.
Degradation may begin on either the terminal amino group or the terminal carboxylic group.
Analyze the \[N\] terminal: Edman Degradation performs the \[N\] terminal analysis. Phenyl thiocyanate is used to treat the peptide. A thiohydantoin heterocycle with \[N\] terminal amino acid and a shortened peptide chain is formed. Sanger created the reagent \[1\] -fluoro- \[2,4\] -dinitrobenzene to label the amino-terminal residue; other reagents, such as dansyl chloride and dabsyl chloride, generate derivatives that are more readily detectable than dinitrophenyl derivatives.

Additional Information:
The amino groups in proteins make up the majority of the total nitrogen content of organic matter. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen is a nitrogen measurement commonly used in wastewater, soil, food, feed, and organic matter analysis. The Kjeldahl method is used, as the name implies. There are more responsive methods available.

Biological functions are found in many essential proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids. Pharmaceuticals, biodegradable plastics, and chiral catalysts are all examples of industrial applications.