> Evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection.
> The theory of evolution is based on that all species are related to each other and change over time.
> Evolution was first given by Charles Darwin.
In order to solve this question, we need to know more about evolution.
Evolution: Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over generations.
These characters are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction.
Different characters exist due to mutation, genetic recombination.
Evolution occurs when evolutionary processes such as natural selection and genetic drift act on this variation which results in certain characteristics becoming more common or rare within a population.
Due to evolution, biodiversity comes.
Convergent evolution: Convergent evolution is when different organisms evolve similar traits.
For example: Sharks and dolphins look relatively similar despite being entirely unrelated.
Radiation evolution: Adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species.
For example: It includes Australian marsupials, cichlid fish, and Darwin's finches.
Divergent evolution: Divergent evolution is the process where groups from the same common ancestor evolve and accumulate differences which results in the formation of new species. Divergent evolution creates homologous organs.
Homologous organs are the organs which have similar structure and different function and have the same developmental origin For example, the thorn of Bougainvillea and tendril of Cucurbita. Thorns and tendrils both are axillary in position and are the modifications of axillary buds.
They both perform different functions such as thorns are for protection and tendrils are for support.
Hence tendrils in plants are an example of divergent evolution.
Coevolution: It is the type of evolution in which two or more species which reciprocally affect each other and sometimes create a mutual relationship between the species.
For example: The predator-prey relationship.
So, the correct option is option C. Divergent evolution.
Note: Metamorphosis: It is a biological process by which an animal develops after birth or hatching which involves a relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
For example: The process of an insect or amphibian maturing into adult form.