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Poultry fowls are susceptible to the following pathogens
A. Viruses
B. Bacteria
C. Fungi
D. All of these

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint:- Birds like chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons, emu and turkeys domesticated by humans in animal husbandry for the commercial use of their eggs, meat and feathers are called poultry fowls. Achieving good quality products requires a combination of management methods such as veterinary guidance, biosecurity, quality nutrition, water, and litter management.

Complete Answer:-Implementation of biosecurity measures is most crucial in the management of animal husbandries. Biosecurity is defined by the World Health Organization as the strategic and integrated approach to analyse and manage risks relevant to animal, plant and human life and health, keeping in mind the associated risks for the environment. The objective of biosecurity is to ensure the prevention/management of associated risks of pathogens and ultimately produce the most efficient use of available resources.
The reason such careful biosecurity measures need to be implemented is that poultry fowls are susceptible to a variety of harmful diseases that tend to reduce the performance of the animals in terms of breeding, feed conversion, growth rate and egg production. They are vulnerable to diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites and protozoa;

Some examples of pathogens that may cause diseases in poultry fowls are as follows:
Viruses - Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease, Duck plague
Bacteria – Mycoplasma, Riemerella anatipestifer, Fowl Cholera, Salmonella.
Fungi – Mould, Mycotoxins, Aspergillosis
Protozoa & Parasites – Coccidiosis, Lice, Mites, Intestinal worms

Thus, the correct answer is option D. All of these.

Note:- Methods such as proper medication and vaccination programs help prevent and control diseases caused by pathogens. It is important to not only pay attention to these disease-causing agents, but also the disease carriers such as rodents, flea and mosquitoes.