Question
Answers

Pollination by wind is called as-
a. Geitonogamy
b. Anemophily
c. Autogamy
d. Malacophily

Answer
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Hint: Many conifer plants, including many angiosperms, including grasses, maples, including oaks, are pollinated by wind. Stamens are exposed to air currents and stigmas. Plants have a large quantity of light, smooth and easy airborne pollen grains.

Complete answer:
> Option A is incorrect. Geitonogamy is the passage of pollen grains from a floral anther to another floral stigma borne by the same plant. Therefore, there is no cross-pollination (a form of self-fertilization) because the genetic material is the same, and this is also known as genetic autonomy. It exists, like maize, in monoecious gymnosperms.

> Option B is correct. Anemophily or wind pollination is a type of pollination in which pollen is spread by wind. Almost all gymnosperms and many plants in the order of Poales, including grasses, sedges, and rushes exhibit anemophily. It does not need their flowers to spend their energy in attracting pollinating animals or insects. These plants exhibit scentless flowers, reduced production of nectar, and colorless floral sections.

> Option C is incorrect. Autogamy is a method of self-pollination, where pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower instead of hybridizing with other plants. Inbreeding induced by autogamy is represented by an increased number of homozygous individuals at the population level and decreased heterozygous relative to those of random mating populations. It can be seen in sunflowers, peas, and orchids, etc.

> Option D is incorrect. Malacophily is a type of pollination that takes place by slugs and snails. Land plants such as chrysanthemum and water plants such as lemma exhibit malacophilous. Arisaema (aroid; serpent plant) is also often visited by snails.

Hence, The correct answer is option (B).

Note: Pollination by wind is an adaptive response that distinguishes the male and female reproductive systems from a single plant, reducing the inbreeding results. Anemophilous flowers have a large feathery stigma to capture pollen grains easily carried by the breeze.