Hint: The exterior phenomenon, also morphological or physical appearance of an organism about single or many characters is known as the Phenotype. For recessive genes, phenotype and genotype are identical. But for the well-known genes, the phenotype is similar for both homozygous conditions.
The mutation is defined as the random, immediate alterations in the hereditary material that is transferred from parents to offspring thereby establishing differences in prevailing phenotype but the linkage is the property of nearly located genes to be transferred jointly to progeny thereby retaining the parental gene assortments. Hence the phenotype is not an outcome of these two.
The genotype is defined as the hereditary composition of an individual which comprises alleles of various genes that codes for several proteins which in turn determine various characteristics, i.e. phenotype. But the environmental interaction like climate, stress, diet etc., influence the characteristics of the organism throughout their life cycle, For example, a strong kid can become shaky due to malnutrition.
Cytoplasmic effects defined as the characteristics that are regulated by genes of cytoplasm and show less effect on phenotype. Sexual dimorphism is defined as the existence of sex-differentiating identities to differentiate into 2 sexes that are regulated by the genotype of the organism itself.
Hence, the correct answer is option (D).
Note: Mutation modifies the prevailing phenotype while linkage conserves the prevailing one. The study of phenotypic identities is referred to as phenomics. The major variation among the phenotype and genotype is that phenotype is not inheritable whereas the genotype is heritable. This variation among genotype and phenotype was initially given by William Johannes in the year 1991.