Pedology is the science of 
(A) Earth
(B) Soil
(C) Pollution
(D) Diseases

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Hint: Pedology is the science of a substance which is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. It is the thin layer of material covering the earth's surface and is formed because of the weathering of rocks.

Complete answer:
Pedology is considered as the science that studies the genesis, nature, distribution, and use the potentiality of soil resources. Pedology is a study of the soil that focuses mainly on understanding the formation of soil, evolution, and therefore the theoretical frameworks through which we understand a soil body(s), often within the context of the natural environment.

Additional Information: Soil helps not only in the vegetation, but also helps in the the pedosphere, where various interactions between climate occur (including water, air, temperature), soil life (micro-organisms, plants, animals) and its residues, the mineral material of the first and added rock and its position within the landscape. During its formation, the profile slowly deepens and develops characteristic layers, called 'horizons', while a gentle state balance is approached. Soil users (such as agronomists) earlier showed very little interest in the dynamics of soil. They saw soil as a medium whose chemical, physical, and biological properties were useful for the services of agronomic productivity. On the other hand, the agronomic applications of the soil characteristics (edaphic properties) didn't specialize by the pedologists and geologists but upon its reference to the character and history of landscapes. Today, there's an integration of the 2 disciplinary approaches as a part of the landscape and environmental sciences.
So, the correct answer is ‘(B) Soil’.

Note: The scientific study of everything has it’s a specific term. For example –
- Scientific study of the earth is known as geology.
- Scientific study of diseases is known as Epidemiology.
- But the scientific study of pollution doesn’t have any specific term.