Question
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Minamata disease is a pollution-related disease, which results from
A. Release of human organic waste into drinking water
B. Accumulation of arsenic into atmosphere
C. Release of industrial waste mercury into fishing water
D. Oil spills into sea

Answer
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Hint: Minamata disease is a neurological disease that came into existence in May 1956. The disease originated in the Minamata city of the south-west region of Kyushu Island of Japan. Sensory disturbances, ataxia, constriction of the visual field, tremor, etc. are symptoms of the disease.

Complete answer: The Minamata disease is caused by methylmercury poisoning caused due to the ingestion of methylmercury contaminated fish and shellfish. These fishes got contaminated by the methylmercury discharge from a chemical plant named Chissco Co. Ltd. in 1956. The disease was first discovered in the Minamata city of Japan and was named after its origin. The marine products of Minamata Bay became highly contaminated with the lethal chemical having a concentration of 5.61-35.7 ppm. Even the people living near the coastline were detected to have lethal mercury levels around a maximum of 705 ppm. Mercury got deposited in their hair. Humans that ingested the contaminated marine products suffered from sensory disturbances, dysarthria, ataxia, tremors, disturbances in the visual field, auditory disturbances, etc. This disease is based on the biomagnifications phenomenon. It refers to the accumulation of lethal chemicals inside the organism’s body. When the small fish eats contaminated food it transfers to the higher fishes. In higher fishes, the contamination magnifies and keeps on expanding in higher predators.
Thus, from the above discussion, we can conclude that option C is the right answer.
Note: Solution and prevention of such diseases are through preventing lethal chemical runoffs from factories and industries directly into water bodies. This not only results in diseases in humans but also causes deterioration of aquatic life. Proper treatment of wastewater should be done to prevent such cases in the future.