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Match the columns.
Column IColumn II
(a)Robert Hooke(i)Mutation theory
(b)Charles Darwin(ii)Swan necked flask experiment
(c)Hugo de Vries(iii)Origin of species
(d)Louis Pasteur(iv)Micrographia

(a)a-(iii); b-(iv); c-(i); d-(ii)
(b)a-(ii); b-(i); c-(i); d-(iv)
(c)a-(i); b-(ii); c-(i); d-(iv)
(d)a-(iv); b-(iii); c-(i); d-(ii)

Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Hint: Robert Hooke was the scientist who discovered the microscope and saw the first cell. Darwin after his extensive research on the Galapagos islands gave us the theory of evolution. Hugo de Vries gave us the theory of saltation. Louis Pasteur disregarded the theory of spontaneous generation using his experiments.

Complete answer:
Robert Hooke: Robert Hooke was an English scientist who in the 1600s invented a rudimentary form of the microscope. He then used this microscope to see the first cells. Although those cells were dead as they were cork cells. He then wrote his observations in his book ‘Micrographia’.
Charles Darwin: Darwin on the basis of his research on Darwin’s finches came to the conclusion that evolution happened because of natural selection and survival of the fittest. He wrote this theory in his book the ‘Origin of Species’.
Hugo de Vries: de Vries on the basis of his experiments on primrose came to the conclusion that evolution happened because of saltation. It suggests that evolution happened because of single-step large mutations and not small gradual steps through natural selection. This theory was known as the mutation theory.
Louis Pasteur: Louis Pasteur used swan-necked flasks proved that the theory of spontaneous generation ( the belief that living organisms arise from non- living things spontaneously) was wrong as no living organisms were found in the flask which was sterilized and free of contamination.
So, the correct option is ‘a-(iv); b-(iii); c-(i); d-(ii)’.

Note: -The first living cells were seen by Anton von Leeuwenhoek. He observed pus cells under the microscope.
-Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace together proposed the theory of natural selection or organic evolution theory.
-Louis Pasteur invented the pasteurization method by which we produce pasteurized milk.