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_____________ is obtained by fermentation of apple juice.
A. Cider
B. Wine
C. Coffee
D. Cocoa

Last updated date: 22nd Jul 2024
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Hint: The process of breakdown of sugar molecules such as glucose anaerobically is known as fermentation. It is a chemical process.

Complete Solution:
Fermentation creates desirable changes in the food and due to these properties, the process of fermentation is used in the food and beverages industries. It is used to create new varieties or flavours, preserving food stuffs, providing health benefits.

The process of fermentation is very similar in nature to anaerobic respiration. The microorganism survives by using carbohydrates or sugars such as glucose to generate energy. During aerobic respiration, the microorganisms generate ATP by breakdown of the glucose molecules.

Aerobic respiration occurs during the presence of oxygen and glucose is converted into the pyruvic acid. When oxygen is absent, the microorganism generates ATP through anaerobic respiration and during this process, different types of organic molecules like lactic acid which leads to production of ATP. This switching between aerobic and anaerobic respiration of the organisms depends on the environmental conditions.

Fermentation occurs in presence of certain microbes such as yeasts, molds and bacteria that obtain energy through fermentation. During the process of fermentation, these microbes break down the sugars and starch into alcohols and acids and help food to become more nutritious and help it to preserve it for longer periods.

Fermentation of apple juice forms cider. The fermentation process takes about three to six days and the process is dependent on the temperature and yeast. The juice is fermented in fermenters with airlocks which helps to exclude air and insects. As soon as the process is ceased, the sediment obtained is removed from the fermenter and the process is allowed to continue. The removal of sediments is done regularly until clear cider is obtained.

Hence, option A is the correct and appropriate answer.

Note: Fermentation of apple juice produces cider which is fermented by the action of microorganisms. The microorganisms breakdown the sugars contained in apple juice to produce cider.