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Internal fertilization
(a) Prevent drying out of gametes and zygotes
(b) Must take place on land
(c) Is practiced by humans
(d) Both (a) and (c)

Last updated date: 24th Jun 2024
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Hint: Male and female gametes get fertilized inside the female body. Internal fertilization is adopted by higher organisms including mammals.

Complete step by step answer:
When a male gamete fertilizes with the female gamete inside the female body it is called internal fertilization. This type of fertilization is seen in sexual reproduction. In internal fertilization, the gametes and the fertilized egg is protected from the predictors and harsh environment. This type of fertilization is adopted by many higher organisms including humans. Internal fertilization takes place in any favorable environment, it is not restricted only on land.
So, the correct answer is 'both (a) and (c)'.

Additional information:
- Reproduction is of two types sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. The development of new individuals without the fusion of gametes is called asexual reproduction. Vegetative reproduction comes under asexual reproduction.
- Development of new individuals with a fusion of gametes is called sexual reproduction. The fusion of male and female gametes is called fertilization. If it is done inside the female body it is called internal fertilization.
- In asexual reproduction, the offsprings are genetically identical to the parents whereas in sexual reproduction the offsprings are genetically not identical.
- Sexual reproduction helps in the evolution of an organism but there is a greater risk of genetic mutations.
- If the fertilization is internal, the gametes and fertilized egg called zygote are safe from the predictors and it can be prevented from drying.
- Number of offsprings formed are more in asexual reproduction when compared with sexual reproduction
- Time taken by the organism to give rise to new individuals is more in sexual reproduction compared to asexual reproduction.

- In sexual reproduction, the formed offspring are not genetically identical and they are considered as a source of evolution.
- One of the disadvantages of sexual reproduction is a greater risk of sexually transmitted diseases.