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Insulin deficiency causes
A. Diabetes insipidus
B. Goitre
C. Diabetes mellitus
D. All of the above

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Beta cells of pancreas are sensitive to the blood glucose levels. They secrete insulin into the bloodstream in response to increased levels of glucose; and also hinder the secretion of insulin if blood glucose levels are lower. Insulin increases the glucose uptake and metabolism in the cells and hence reduces the blood sugar level.

Complete step by step answer: Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition which is characterized by unusually high levels of glucose in the blood. It is caused due to the deficiency of a hormone called insulin. Insulin is released from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans present in the pancreas. It helps in the consumption of food for energy in the body. If a person is suffering from diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin, or in some cases, the body becomes resistant to insulin or both. Insulin stimulates the uptake glucose in the cell. Lack of insulin or the inability of the cells to respond to insulin can lead to a deficiency in glucose uptake. When the glucose is not taken up by the cells, the body does not get enough glucose to form energy and hence, several other difficulties that are associated with the higher blood glucose levels occur.
a. Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the patient feels extreme thirst (polydipsia) and frequent urination (polyuria). It is caused by the inefficiency of a chemical known as vasopressin (AVP also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and it is stored in the pituitary gland.
b. Goitre is a medical condition that is characterized by an unusual enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is caused due to the deficiency of thyroxine hormone from the thyroid gland in the body. Some symptoms of goitre are enlargement of throat region which ranges from a small lump to a huge mass, swallowing and breathing difficulties.
Hence, the correct answer is option C.

Note: The insulin levels in the blood are measured in international units, for instance, µIU/mL or in molar concentration, such as pmol/L. A standard blood insulin level between meals is 8–11 μIU/mL (57–79 pmol/L). The first peptide hormone to be discovered was Insulin. It was first isolated from dog pancreas in 1921 by Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best at the University of Toronto.