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Industrial preparation of nitric acid by Ostwald’s process involves:
A.Oxidation of \[N{H_3}\]
B.Reduction of \[N{H_3}\]
C.Hydrogenation of \[N{H_3}\]
D.Hydrolysis of \[N{H_3}\]

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Nitric acid is a chemical compound made up from the combination of nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen elements in a specific ratio. It is highly corrosive mineral acid. Nitric acid is also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter.

Complete step by step answer:
Nitric acid is most commonly manufactured from Ostwald’s process.
Ostwald’s process is a chemical process to convert ammonia into nitric acid in two stages.
In stage1 ammonia is oxidized to form nitric oxide and nitric dioxide and in the second step the nitrogen dioxide is allowed to dissolve in water and finally nitric acid is formed.
The reactions involved are:
\[4N{H_3} + {O_2} \to 4NO + 6{H_2}O\]
$2NO + {O_2} \to 2N{O_2}$
$3N{O_2} + {H_2}O \to 2HN{O_3} + NO$
As we can see in the above reactions that first ammonia is converted into nitric oxide and then further with the help of oxygen it is converted into nitric dioxide. The next step involves addition of water in nitric dioxide which finally results in nitric acid.
The catalyst used in this reaction is platinum.
Overall reaction is exothermic.
The Ostwald’s process is considered an important chemical process because it provides a key ingredient for many fertilizers and fertilizer plants.

Note: The easiest method of preparation of nitric acid in the lab is by dissolving additional nitrogen dioxide in $68\% $ nitric acid in an absorption tower. Dissolved nitrogen oxides are either stripped in the case of white fuming nitric acid, or remain in the solution to form red fuming nitric acid.