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In plasmid pBR 322, ‘BR’ stands for
A. Baculovirus and Retrovirus
B. Boyer and Reed
C. Bolivar and Rodrigues
D. Bacillus and Rhizobium

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint:This refers to the name of the scientists who invented pBR322. They are postdoctoral investigators and researchers at San Francisco University.

Complete Answer:
A plasmid is a short, extrachromosomal DNA molecule present in a cell, physically isolated from chromosomal DNA. This are typically found in bacteria as small spherical, double-stranded DNA molecules, but in archaea and eukaryotic species the plasmids are also present. Often plasmid-borne genes give bacteria genetic benefits, like resistance to antibiotics. Plasmids are distributed in many sizes and are used in biotechnology for numerous purposes.
pBR 322 is a plasmid and was one of the first commonly used E. Vectors of coli cloning. It was established in 1977 at the Herbert Boyer lab at San Francisco University by Francisco Bolivar Zapata and Raymond L. Rodriguez, a postdoctoral investigator and researcher. In pBR322, “p” represents plasmid, and “BR” stands for Bolivar and Rodriguez. Many other plasmids were artificially engineered for cloning purposes, and found that pBR322 is the most flexible and thus the most commonly used. It has as selectable markers two antibiotic resistance genes and a range of convenient and special restrictive sites that have made it ideal for cloning.

Thus, the correct answer is option D. i.e., Bolivar and Rodriguez.

Note:In the construction of intraspecies shuttles and binary vectors and for targeted integration and extermination of chromosomal DNA, most expression vectors for extra-chromosomal protein expression and shuttle vectors contain pBR322 origin, and pBR322 fragments.