Courses
Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
More
Store Icon
Store

In pedigree analysis, circles represent
A) Normal males
B) Normal females
C) Affected males
D) Affected females

seo-qna
Last updated date: 24th Jun 2024
Total views: 395.4k
Views today: 8.95k
Answer
VerifiedVerified
395.4k+ views
Hint:- A pedigree map is a diagram illustrating the frequency and presence of phenotypes of a single gene or organism and its ancestors, most often humans, showing dogs and racehorses from one generation to the next. A pedigree is a diagram used to explain the individual relationships between relatives that are phenotypically.

Complete answer:
There are some standard symbols that are used in drawing or evaluating a pedigree. To represent a normal female an unfilled circle is used, an unfilled square to represent a normal male, and a diamond to represent a normal person of unknown gender. A filled or shaded oval, on the other side, shows a female afflicted by the unique feature of the disease and a filled or shaded square represents an affected person.
For the disease allele or alleles, a half-filled circle reveals a heterozygous female and a half-filled square suggests a heterozygous male for the phenotype. These heterozygous individuals are referred to as carriers of the allele or phenotype of the specific disorder. A deceased female is marked by an unfilled circle crossed by a line, and an unfilled square crossed by a line indicates a deceased person.
A horizontal line between their respective symbols indicates mating between males and females. This line is then added to another horizontal line below, which is attached to their descendants' symbols. In the order in which they were born, siblings are represented from left to right. The oldest child is seen to the far left, and to the far right, the youngest. Mating among members of the family (consanguinity) is defined by a double line between their symbols.
From these discussions we can conclude that circles in pedigree analysis represent Normal females.
Thus, the right option is B.

Note:- To denote persons or generations, numbers are also used in pedigrees. In Roman numerals, generations are shown and persons are shown in Arabic numerals. In a pedigree, all persons are counted from left to right. For dominant or recessive gene alleles, pedigrees may be constructed.