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How can we improve the success rate of fertilization during artificial insemination in animal husbandry programmes?

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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The most common technique used in advanced cattle breeding is the Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET), a typical embryo flush. To stimulate the ovaries of cycling cattle to cause several ovulations, the process uses hormones, mainly Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH).

Complete answer:
It involves a superovulation programme of 5 weeks, which results in the release of several eggs from the animal as opposed to one during natural heat.
To stimulate the ovaries of cycling cattle to cause several ovulations, the process uses hormones, mainly Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). Donor cows are then inseminated (often with two semen straws) and multiple oocyte (eggs) fertilization takes place within the reproductive tract. Embryos are flushed out of the uterus seven days later and are either implanted as new embryos or frozen to be implanted at a later date.
The resulting pregnancy rates using MOET technology are anticipated in the region of 50 percent or greater. The use of sexed semen using MOET technology is not effective at this stage of time. Ovulation intensity is defined by genotype and affected by environmental factors and is the culmination of folliculogenesis, the main determinant of prolificacy. Folliculogenesis is mediated by gonadotropins and local ovarian regulatory factors, such as steroids, cytokines and growth factors. This analysis summarizes a folliculogenesis functional model and examines evidence relevant to it and ovulation rate control, using data. Special emphasis is placed on the roles of local regulators in gonadotropin acquisition and modulation of ovarian cell responsiveness and their roles in proliferation and differentiation.
Breeding programmes focused on the use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) have been suggested as alternatives to progeny testing for the genetic enhancement of dairy cattle. By use of the MOET technology, selected females produce large families, and the bull offspring can then be analyzed using the output details on their complete and half-sisters. Other advantages of the Nucleus MOET system, where the whole breeding programme is run as a single herd, are the degree of operational control over the determinants of genetic progress and the ability to measure all economically significant characteristics under the same conditions.

Note:
While this technology is not commercially available in developing countries, ET technology could provide opportunities for the conservation and production of small breeds. ET study and genetic enhancement of local breeds could be made available through National Agriculture Research Centers to smallholder farmers in developing countries, provided that the expertise and infrastructure are available.