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What is the Human Genome project? Write the salient features of the Human Genome Project. Draw a representative diagram of the human genome project.

Last updated date: 14th Jun 2024
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Hint: Human genome project was an international project which has a goal of determining the base pairs which help in making up human DNA and to identify and do the mapping of all of the genes present in humans.

Complete step by step answer:
The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 and was completed on April 14, 2003. The Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in an exceedingly human haploid genome. The "genome" of any given individual is unique; mapping the "human genome" involved sequencing a small number of individuals and so assembling these to get or receive an entire sequence for each chromosome. Therefore, the finished human genome is a mosaic, not representing any single individual. Advances in recombinant DNA technology techniques made it possible to isolate and clone DNA pieces and determine nucleotide sequences of these fragments.

Salient features of the human genome project are:
- The human genome contains 3.1647 billion nucleotide base pairs.
- It was found that the human genome consists of something about 30,000 genes. One fact to be noted is that we humans have more than twice as many genes as fruitfully.
- The average size of the gene is 3000 base pairs.
- The maximum and minimum genes for the human chromosomes are -Chromosome I has 2968 genes while Y-chromosome has 231 genes.
- To date, we don’t know the function of approx 50% discovered genes.
- It was discovered that 99.9% of the nucleotide bases are exactly similar in all human beings.
- Only less than 2% of the genome represents structural genes that code for proteins.

Note: According to researchers made in the Human Genome Project, The largest gene is that of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy on the X-chromosome. It has 2.4 million (2400 kilo) base pairs. On the other side, B-globin and insulin genes are less than 10 kilobases.