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Give the disproportionation reaction of ${{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3}$.

Last updated date: 15th Jun 2024
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Hint:Disproportionation reaction is a type of redox reaction. In this reaction, a single substance can undergo both oxidation and reduction. Loss of electrons is termed as oxidation. Gain of electrons is termed as reduction.

Complete step by step answer:Redox reactions are the chemical reactions in which the atoms change their oxidation state, i.e. there is a transfer of electrons occurring between the species. When an atom loses its electrons or its oxidation state gets increased, then it is termed as oxidation. When an atom gains electrons or its oxidation state gets reduced, then it is termed as reduction. There are five types of redox reactions- combination, decomposition, displacement, disproportionation, and combustion reactions.
Disproportionation reactions are the reaction in which a single atom simultaneously gets oxidized and reduced. Disproportionation reaction of ${{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3}$ is given below:
\[4{{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3} \to 3{{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_4} + {\text{P}}{{\text{H}}_3}\]
We can explain this reaction in terms of giving oxygen. Oxidation means gaining oxygen and reduction means losing oxygen.
Here ${{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3}$ has undergone both oxidation and reduction.
Oxidation: \[{{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3} \to {{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_4}\]
Here oxygen is gained.
Reduction: \[{{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3} \to {\text{P}}{{\text{H}}_3}\]
Here oxygen is lost from ${{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3}$.
Thus ${{\text{H}}_3}{\text{P}}{{\text{O}}_3}$ gets oxidized and reduced.

Additional information:
Combination reaction is a reaction in which two elements are combined to form a compound. Sum of oxidation states of reactants is equal to that of the single product. Displacement reaction is a reaction in which one element is reduced and replaces another element. Decomposition reaction is the opposite of combination reaction. In this reaction, the molecule decomposes into its constituents. Combustion reaction is a reaction in which an organic compound reacts with oxygen and forms carbon dioxide.

Note: Disproportionation reaction is known as a special kind of redox reaction. It is a special case of decomposition reaction. But in decomposition reactions different elements are being oxidized and reduced. But in a disproportionation reaction, a single element is being oxidized and reduced.