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How many functions in the list given below are under the control of the hypothalamus Thermoregulation, sexual behavior, and emotion, endocrine control, sneezing, coughing, heartbeats, and respiration.
(a) six
(b) three
(c) four
(d) five

Last updated date: 22nd Feb 2024
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Hint: Endocrine bodies consist of the pineal gland, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal pancreas, and glands which secrete hormone and regulate body functions.

Complete answer:
 Hypothalamus control functions like thermoregulation, sexual behavior, emotion, endocrine control, heartbeats, and respiration. Hypothalamus secretes hormone mainly from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland but hormone-like melanocyte releasing hormone and melanocyte inhibiting hormone are secreted from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary, therefore pituitary gland is the ‘Master endocrine gland’ of the Hypothalamus. The neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus secretes neurohormone, this neurohormone carried by the blood to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, and later release of hormone takes place.

Additional Information: The Hypothalamus located in the basal part of the forebrain, it is connected with the pituitary gland. The hormone of the hypothalamus influences the pituitary gland that’s why the hypothalamus is also called as supreme commander of endocrine regulation.
The hormone present in the hypothalamus is -
-Thyrotropin-releasing hormone- It secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin
-Growth hormone - It releases growth hormone and somatotropin from the pituitary gland.
-Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone- Inhibit secretion of growth hormone and somatotropin from the pituitary.
-Gonadotropin-releasing hormone- Secrete follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
-Prolactin releasing hormone- Secrete prolactin.
-Prolactin inhibiting hormone- Inhibit secretion of prolactin.
-Adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone- Secrete adrenocorticotropic.
-Melanocyte releasing hormone- Secrete melanocyte-stimulating hormone.
-Melanocyte inhibiting hormone- Inhibit secretion of the melanocyte.
So, the correct answer is ‘Six’.

Note: The pituitary gland connected with the hypothalamus by the hypophyseal portal system and by axons of the hypothalamic neuron. No hormone synthesizes in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland but the storage of neurosecretory hormone takes place in tiny vesicles called Hessing bodies.