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Who is the father of genetic engineering?
(a)Steward Linn
(b)Stanley Cohen
(c)Paul Berg
(d)Kary Mullis

Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Hint He is an American botanist and was a professor at Stanford University. Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of an organism's gene by the uses of biotechnology which is used to change the genetic makeup of the cell.

Complete answer:
Paul Berg is the father of genetic engineering who is an American biochemist and contributes to basic research that involves the nucleic acids. The set of technologies are used for the genetic makeup of the cells which includes the transfer of genes in the species boundaries for the production of improved organisms. The new DNA can be obtained by the copying of genetic material of the interest using the recombinant DNA methods or by isolating and synthesizing the DNA. The DNA is inserted into the host organism and the first recombinant DNA molecule was discovered by Paul Berg by combining the DNA from a monkey virus with the lambda virus. The DNA is inserted to target a specific part of the genome and an organism is generated through Genetic engineering is considered genetically modified and results in genetically modified organisms.

Additional information:
The creation of genetically modified organisms is a multistep process in which the first step includes the insertion of a gene into the organism which is driven by the aim for the resultant organism which is built on earlier research. For the determination of potential genes and the test genetic screens are carried out for the identification of the best candidate and the development of genome sequencing, transcriptomics and microarrays made it easier for finding the suitable gene. The next step involves the isolation of the gene which contains the DNA which is glorified and is separated using restriction enzymes to cut the DNA into fragments or polymerase chain reaction for amplification of the gene segment.

So, the correct answer is 'Paul Berg'.

Note: Genetic engineering was first started in 1973 by American biochemist Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer who was the first to cut the DNA into fragments and rejoin its different pigments by inserting new genes into the e coli bacteria when they start reproducing.