Hint: It is a condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum. An undescended testicle is uncommon in general, but common among premature babies.
In males, the scrotum is generally a pouch of deeply pigmented skin, connective and fibrous tissue, and smooth muscle. It is located below the symphysis pubis, in front of the upper parts of the thighs, and behind the penis. Testes are located outside the abdominal cavity within a pouch known as the scrotum. The scrotum helps in maintaining a lower temperature of the testes than the rest of the body because it is necessary for spermatogenesis. The condition of the undescended testis is known as cryptorchidism. During embryonic stage, testes develop within the abdominal cavity but fail to descend into the scrotum prior to birth. If this condition is not corrected on time then it may lead to infertility and risk of testicular cancer is also increased.
Factors that may increase the risk of an undescended testicle in a newborn include:
-Low birth weight
-A family history of undescended testicles or other problems of genital development.
- Foetal condition that can restrict growth, such as Down syndrome or an abdominal wall defect
-Alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy
-Mother may smoke or may be exposed to secondhand smoke
-Parents’ exposure to some pesticides
So, the correct answer is option (b) ‘Cryptorchidism’.
Note: The exact cause of an undescended testicle isn’t known right now, but a combination of many conditions may contribute to it such as genetics, maternal health, and other environmental factors may also disturb the hormone secretion, physical changes, and nerve activity may influence the development of the testicles.