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Explain the cycle of producing and releasing mature ova.

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: The Female reproductive system carries out several functions in the role of producing hormones, nurturing the developing foetus, and it is mainly responsible for making gametes. Its most primary function is to contribute half or a part of total genetic material in order to protect and nourish a new human.

Complete answer:
In the female reproductive tract, a set of two ovaries is present which is responsible for producing gamete and secreting hormones. The presence of two uterine tubes (also called fallopian tubes) found near the two ovaries to which it is attached by a fingerlike projection called fimbriae. The uterine tube provides pathways to the fertilized egg in which it passes through from the ovaries to the uterus. Normally, ovaries produce one mature ovum every month or per menstrual cycle. They are involved in the process of generating correct hormonal signals to secrete estrogen and progesterone.
In females, the mature gametes or egg cells are known as ova. The process of the production and release of mature ovum is not continuous. But under the influence of certain hormones, one primary follicle which contains mature ovum gets triggered which makes the matured egg to release from it. The ovarian cycle helps in the preparation and release of matured egg from any one of the ovaries with the secretion of high levels of FSH and LH. Thus, the process of the release of mature ovum from any one of a woman’s ovaries is known as ovulation.

The menstrual cycle is the periodical cyclic process of ovulation in females which is categorized under four phases namely the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase, the luteal phase, and the menstrual phase. It is this cycle that makes the female possible for pregnancy.
-During this Follicular phase, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) prepares the follicles in the ovaries to grow to form a fully matured egg. This period is also known as a proliferative phase and it takes place from day 6 – 14.
-Ovulatory phase is also referred as Mid-cycle phase, in which it occurs roughly on the day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle and lasts for about 24 hours. During this phase, the secretion of Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the ovary to release its egg. This particular event is known as ovulation.

Note: After the release of egg in the postovulatory phase, the closure of ruptured follicle after the egg release and the decrease in the level of LH and FSH, forms a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone hormone. The level of the progesterone hormone rises up to maintain the thickness in the lining of the uterus for possible fertilization. The Luteal phase is also referred to as the secretory phase which lasts for about 13 days i.e., from day 15 to 28 of 28 days menstrual cycle.