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During the fusion process, how is mass converted into energy?

Last updated date: 16th Jun 2024
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Hint:The reaction that involves fusion of many nuclei that fuses to become as one large nuclei is known as the nuclear fission reaction. This reaction is important for the release of the energy that is responsible for the fuelling of the stars. To answer the given question consider the equation that relates the mass and the energy.

Complete step by step answer:
The reaction involving the identity change in the atomic nucleus that is induced by the bombardment of the nucleus with the energy particle is known as the nuclear reaction. The bombarding particle can either be alpha, gamma, or beta particle. The nuclear reactions can be classified into four types.

When the atom’s nucleus splits into lighter nuclei through a nuclear reaction is known as nuclear fusion reaction. The decay can be naturally spontaneous spitting by the radioactive decay that can be actually stimulated in a lab by achieving the necessary conditions.We know that the fusion of two lighter nuclei into one large nuclei is known as the nuclear fusion. The nuclei have less mass when compared to the masses of the protons and the neutrons that form them.

With the help of Einstein's mass energy relation, we can answer the question. Einstein’s equation states that the product of the mass and the speed gives the binding energy of the given nucleus. That is,
$\Rightarrow E = m{c^2}$
Where, $E$ is the binding energy, $m$ is the mass and $c$ is the speed of the light.
If the mass is greater than the binding energy will also be greater. The binding energy per nucleon is greater for the medium mass nuclei and maximum for the iron nuclei. This represents that if two low mass nuclei is fused together to form one large nucleus the energy will be released. The binding energy is larger for the larger nucleus.

Note:Another nuclear reaction is called Nuclear fission. The process when the larger nuclei splits into two smaller nuclei is known as fission reaction. There are differences between fission and fusion process. The amount of the energy required for the fission process is low when compared to the fusion process. Fission cannot be seen occurring in nature in the normal cases where the fusion reaction can be seen occurring in the stars etc.Many radioactive substances are produced in the fission and few radioactive substances are produced in the fusion process. The example of fission process is Uranium and hydrogen isotopes are the example for fusion process.