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Draw a well-labeled diagram of human nephron and define hemodialysis.

Last updated date: 25th Feb 2024
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Hint: Kidney performs two functions namely excretion of nitrogenous wastes and osmoregulation. Hemodialysis is the phenomenon that is related to kidney failure. The apparatus used in such a condition is called an artificial kidney. This occurs due to the accumulation of excess urea.

Complete answer:
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Accumulation of excess urea in blood is called Uremia which is highly harmful and conditions may cause kidney failure in humans.
In the condition of kidney failure, the excess of urea is removed with the help of a process known as hemodialysis and the person is said to be put on dialysis.
The apparatus used in such a condition consists of a dialyzing unit also called a dialyzer which contains a coiled cellophane tube surrounded by a solution having the exact composition as that of plasma.
Blood is drained from a convenient artery into which there is an addition of heparin, an anticoagulant. This blood is pumped into the dialyzer in which the tube removes the nitrogenous wastes and thus cleaning the blood. The blood which was cleaned and heparin is added into it is then pumped back to the body.
Nephron: nephron is also called as the functional unit of the kidney. Each kidney is composed of a large number of nephrons.
A nephron consists of a glomerulus and renal tubule. Each nephron starts with a renal corpuscle which is the combination of a glomerulus and Bowman's capsule.
It is then followed by the secretory tubule which consists of the proximal convoluted tubule(PCT), the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule(DCT).
The DCT opens into a collecting tubule(CT).

Note: The process of hemodialysis the substitute of the kidneys. An important point that when there is an occurrence of kidney failure then to eliminate extra nitrogenous wastes from the blood Hemodialysis is used as a replacement of the original kidney.