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How does electronegativity affect boiling point?

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: As you would expect, the strength of the bond increases as the electronegativity of the group bound to hydrogen is expanded. So it could be said, \[HO\] , and \[NH\] are "sticky" – atoms containing these functional groups will in general have higher boiling points than you would anticipate depending on their molecular weight.

Complete step by step answer:
Factors that affect the boiling point
Boiling points increment as the quantity of carbons is expanded.
Expanding diminishes boiling point
The relative strength is Ionic > Hydrogen bonding > dipole-dipole > Van Der Waals dispersion forces
Take these examples are \[{H_2}O\] and \[HF\] . \[{H_2}O\] has a typical boiling point of $100^oC$; HF has an ordinary boiling point of ${19.5^0}C$ . Since hydrogen is bound to an emphatically electronegative component in every molecule, the heteroatom polarizes electron density towards itself with the end goal that the hydrogen secures a positive charge, and the heteroatom,\[\;O\] or \[F\] gains a fractional negative charge.
This charge separation, this polarity, is an extra Intermolecular power that binds atoms together and should be defeated before the particles enter the gas phase. The boiling point of water far surpasses that of its Group \[VI\] congeners, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen selenide; which are room temperature gases.
\[HCl\] , and \[HBr\] , and \[HI\] are additionally all room temperature gases and for the lower Group individuals, the degree of intermolecular hydrogen bonding is lessened (however their ionization upon fluid arrangement permits their shipment as the aqueous acids).

Note:
The ammonia (while this is a gas at RT) likewise has an abnormally high boiling point, at \[ - 33.3^\circ C\] , for correctly similar reasons.