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Distinguish between tile following:
A. Cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity.
B. Active and passive immunization.

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Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Immune response is produced by our body whenever it encounters a foreign particle which can be harmful to our body. The active immune response is the response of the host in which hypermutations take place to fight against the first time encountering pathogens. And passive immunity we generally, we get from parents.

Complete step by step answer: 1. Cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity:
S. No.Cell-mediated ImmunityHumoral Immunity
01.Cell-mediated immunity means components of adaptive immunity which is activated by the antigen-specific T-cells. The humoral response is a type of immunity in which B cells of the adaptive immunity help fight antigens by releasing antibodies.
02.This type of immunity is mediated by helper-T cells, cytotoxic T cells, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells.This immunity is mediated by the T cells, B cells, and macrophages.
03.It is a delayed-type of hypersensitivity. It is rapid in action.
04.It can act on cancer forming tumor cells and transplanted organs.It does not have effects on the tumor cells and transplanted organs.

2. Active and passive immunity:

S. No. Active immunityPassive immunity
01.Active immunity means the production of antibodies by B cells, which directly contact antigens and protect its host.This is a type in which response is short-term, in which antibodies are injected from outside of the host body.
02.It is a delayed response and can take time approximately three to one week of time for response.It is a rapid and fast response and shows immediate effects on the host.
03.It helps in the generation of immunological memory, that is, successive encounters with the same pathogens will be treated at a faster rate.There is no memory generation for the memory cells. Thus, every time taken for the response will be the same.
04.It will not work properly in hosts having weak immunity or immunodeficient persons.This can work properly in immunodeficient persons as well.


Note:Some viruses or pathogens have the capability of reducing the host’s immune response like HIV and in such conditions, the host can die even from mild fever. This can be treated at the initial stages if detected. Organs involved in immune responses are the lymphatic system, bone marrow, and thymus.