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Distinguish between the following:
A.Competition and mutualism
B.Agricultural water pollution and shipping water pollution.
C.Natality and mortality.

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint:Mutualism and competition are two types of interaction between different spices in which organisms may rely on each other for the resources or they compete with each other for the same sources.
Agricultural water pollution comes from agricultural activities like plantation, crop production, and others. And shipping water pollution comes from traveling in the water via ships.

Complete answer: 1. Competition and mutualism:
S. No. Mutualism Competition
01.Interaction between two species in the same environment and both give benefits to each other.Interaction between two species for the same resources like food, water, and habitat. Here, due to competition for resources both spices suffer.
02.For mutualism, both the spices can be interacting through physical ways or by physiological ways. It depends on the type of spices and benefits which they offer to each other.No physical association takes place between two interacting species or competitors.
03.It is a positive interaction type of the different spices.Competition is a negative type of interaction among the spices.
04.Interacting species cannot survive without each other.Interacting species can live without each other.
05.Example: Lichens which is an association between fungus and algae. Example: In south American lakes, visiting flamingos and resident species compete for food.

2. Agricultural water pollution and shipping water pollution:

S. No.Agricultural water pollutionShipping water waste
01.The main pollutants of water pollution from agriculture are harmful chemicals like pesticides, fertilizers, and animal waste from manure.Pollutants of water pollution from the shipping are crude oil, different long-chain hydrocarbons, and detergents used for cleaning purposes.
02.It can show harmful effects on terrestrial life as well as aquatic life. Sipping water pollution will have harmful effects on aquatic organisms only.

3. Natality and mortality:

S. No. Natality Mortality
01.It is the birth rate in which we calculate the ratio of total living births with respect to the total population of that particular area in a unit time period.It is the death rate of the population which is the ratio of the total number of deaths to the total population of the area.
02.Improvement in the healthcare of pregnant women has resulted in an increase in the natality rate.Improvement in medical services and lifestyle of the people resulted in the long lives of people.


Note: In general, to calculate natality and mortality rates we take one thousand births and deaths respectively, in the total population of the area. In India, the highest birth rate has been observed in Kerala state.