Hint: There sex chromosomes are absent in animals like bees, wasps, and ants. By parthenogenesis, these organisms reproduce. Also a few plants, reptiles and fish are able to replicate in this way. A few species can reproduce sexually as well as by parthenogenesis, such as crayfish, snakes, komodo dragons and sharks. This process is recognized as facultative parthenogenesis.
- The process of parthenogenesis is a type of asexual reproduction in which embryo forms are carried out without the fertilization process. The embryo undergoes development and growth from an unfertilized egg.
- Apogamy is characterized as a mode of reproduction, in which the sporophyte grows from a gametophyte without being fertilized. The method of fruit production without the stage of fertilization is called parthenocarpy. In this case, the production of seedless fruits takes place.
- A pseudogamy process is a form of reproduction where the embryo develops from an egg without undergoing fertilization due to the stimulation of pollination. The eggs are triggered, but without the nuclear fusion prerequisite.
Hence, the correct answer is parthenogenesis.
Parthenogenesis is a normal process of asexual reproduction in which embryo development and growth takes place without sperm fertilization. Parthenogenesis in animals means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized cell of an egg. Parthenogenesis is a component phase of apomixis in plants.
Note: The fertilized eggs become females in honeybee colonies, and the unfertilized eggs will turn into male drones. This is a phenomenon known as haploid parthenogenesis: only half the number of chromosomes of a fertilized egg is found in the unfertilized egg. These eggs are not fertilized, and only male honey bees will be produced.